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Dimensional Analysis (Section)(a) If an electric car is

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321696724 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward ISBN: 9780321696724 27

Solution for problem 50E Chapter 1

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

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Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321696724 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

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Problem 50E

Problem 50E

Dimensional Analysis (Section)

(a) If an electric car is capable of going 225 km on a single charge, how many charges will it need to travel from Seattle, Washington, to San Diego, California, a distance of 1257 mi, assuming that the trip begins with a full charge?

(b) If a migrating loon flies at an average speed of 14 m/s, what is its average speed in mi/hr?

(c) What is the engine piston displacement in liters of an engine whose displacement is listed as 450 in.3?

(d) In March 1989 the Exxon Valdez ran aground and spilled 240,000 barrels of crude petroleum off the coast of Alaska. One barrel of petroleum is equal to 42 gal. How many liters of petroleum were spilled?

Step-by-Step Solution:

BIOCHEM EXAM 4 NOTES LECTURE 15: CARBOHYDRATES - Monosaccharides - - general formulas for the aldose and ketose forms of monosaccharides; glyceraldehyde is an aldotriose and dihydroxyacetone is a ketotriose - three carbons makes it a triose - Monosaccharide Stereoisomers o Two molecules are described as stereoisomers of each other if they are made of the same atoms connected in the same sequence, but the atoms are positioned differently in space. o All have same chemical formula but structured different o Cannot superimpose o They are mirror images - D-ribose and L-ribose are enantiomers; non- superimposible mirror images; the are exact mirror images; we will mainly be discussing D form - Diastereomers are stereoisomers that are not enantiomers o Not complete mirror images, functional groups only different on a few carbon atoms o d-ribose and d-arabinose - Diasteriomers that differ at a single chiral carbon are EPIMERS (e.g., D-glucose and D- galactose differ in position of –OH at C atom #4 and D-glucose and D-mannose differ in position of -OH group at C atom #2) - o must know and recognize glucose, mannose, and galactose - Monosaccharide structure: Hemiacetal formation o Furanose ring- 5 membered o Forms a ring by the oxygen on carbon 4 attacking carbon 1; so oxygen is then shared between carbon 1 and carbon 4 o Carbon 1 loses the double bond and gets an H added; loses the aldehyde o The two possible diasteriomers that form because of cyclization are called anomers (α or β) o o For a six carbon sugar, its between carbon-1 and the oxygen on carbon-5 o At carbon-1, the oxygen loses the double bond and gets an H added o If the OH is to the right, then it goes to the bottom of the ring o Carbon-5 does not have its own OH anymore o Mannose has an OH going up on carbon-2 o Galactose has an OH going up on carbon-4 - Sugars: o Fructose has 6 carbon atoms, but still makes a 5 member ring; still a hexose sugar even though it has a 5 membered ring; a ketose sugar o Bond between 2 and 5 carbons - Examples of Monosaccharides o Important monosaccharides o Glucose (D-Glucose)- originally called dextrose, it is found in large quantities throughout the natural world  The primary fuel for living cells  Preferred energy source for brain cells and cells without mitochondria (erythrocytes) o Fructose (D-Fructose)- is often referred to as fruit sugar, because of its high content in fruit  On a per-gram basis, it is twice as sweet as sucrose; therefore, it is often used as a sweetening agent in processed food; more abundant in nature (honey, fruit, nectar)  Sperm use fructose as an energy source  Not the preferred energy source; will be transformed into glucose after a certain point. o Galactose- is necessary to synthesize a variety of important biomolecules  Important biomolecules include lactose, glycolipids, phospholipids, proetoglycan, and glycoproteins  Galactosemia is a genetic disorder resulting from a missing enzyme in galactose metabolism  Not important for energy  Important role in cell-cell communication  Bacteria relies on it for capsule transporter  Not focused on - Chemical Reactions of Monosaccharides o Oxidation- monosaccharides may readily undergo several oxidation reactions in the presence of metal ions or certain enzymes  A lactone can be produced if the carbonyl groups of aldonic or uronic acids react with an OH group in the same molecule  Vitamin C, a lactone, is a powerful reducing agent that protects cells from reactive oxygen and nitrogen species  oxidation: when it gets oxidized, the aldehyde (H- C=O) group becomes an acid  reduction: when it gets reduced, the aldehyde becomes an alcohol  Alcohol oxidized to aldehyde oxidized to acids  Acids reduced to aldehyde reduced to alcohol  Some people lack enzyme to process aldehyde and can’t drink alcohol  Carbon 1--- Aldehyde replaced with carboxylic acid = aldonic acid  Carbon 6--- uronic acid  Both carbon 1 and carbon 6 are oxidized = aldaric acid o Reduction- Sugar alcohols (alditols) are produced by the reduction of aldehyde and ketone groups of monosaccharides  Sugar alcohols are used in commercial food processing and in pharmaceuticals (e.g., sorbitol can be used to prevent moisture loss)  Reduced- glucitol  Do not want to reduce glucose too much  Sorbitol used in food industry to prevent water loss; not good for consumption for long periods of time or in large amounts o Glycosidic Bond Formation:  Disaccharides  Two monosaccharides are linked by a glycosidic bond  Linkages are named by a- or b-conformation and by which carbons are connected (e.g., a(1,4) or b(1,4))  Alpha glucose on left; can attack any OH group and they lose a molecule of water  Name bond according to which carbons are in the bond; and base it off the first sugar on whether it is alpha or beta  1,4 linkages are most common because they are closest to each other  Lactose (milk sugar)- is the disaccharide found in milk  One molecule of galactose linked to one molecule of glucose (b(1,4) linkage)  It is common to have a deficiency in the enzyme that breaks down lactose (lactase)  Lactose is a reducing sugar  Know if it is a reducing sugar: in the second sugar at the first carbon, there is the ability to build the chain further or can get reduced  Know where its found and what it is involved in  Know what two sugars are involved  Maltose (malt sugar)- is an intermediate product of starch hydrolysis  a(1,4) linkage between two molecules of glucose  a-glucose because the OHs are pointed away from the oxygen  Maltose is two alpha glucose units together with a 1,4 bond  found in lots of kids drinks  A reducing sugar  Cellbiose- is a degradation product of cellulose  Cellobiose is composed of two molecules of glucose linked with a b(1,4) glycosidic bond  Does not exist freely in nature  Beta glucose on left and right; two beta  Reducing sugar  Sucrose- is common table sugar (cane or beet sugar) produced in the leaves and stems of plants  One molecule of glucose linked to one molecule of fructose, linked by an a1,2 glycosidic bond  Sucrose is a non-reducing sugar  Extremely sweet because it has fructose in it  Alpha glucose; beta fructose  1 is on the glucose, 2 is on the fructose (it is a 6 carbon sugar but only forms a 5 carbon ring)  Both carbon atoms are reducing atoms participating in the bond so nothing can be added to this; nonreducing sugar  Will name both alpha and beta {EX: alpha, beta (1, 2) } since we have to name the ones that are reducing atoms and they both are - Polysaccharides: o Building a chain of monosaccharides o Plant source: starch is a bunch of alpha glucoses attached in an Alpha (1,4) glycosidic linkages  Amylopectin: branched starch  Amylose: unbranched starch  At branch point is an alpha (1,6) linkage o Animal source: stored in the liver of animals; glycogen is chemically identical to starch (with alpha 1,4 linkage), EXCEPT plant sources don’t branch out as much as animal sources do; o Cellulose: beta glucose 1,4 glycosidic linkage; more structured for support for plants; hydrogen bonding between each of the cellulose sheets  The bonds of the oxygen are what needed to be followed to see which is beta or alpha o Based on beta 1,4 glycosidic linkages: o Chitin: used as structural support in cell walls of fungi and skeletons of plants/crustaceans o Peptidoglycan: structural support in bacterial cell walls; sugar is extremely modified and have chain of amino acids to form a peptide bond; serve as antigens in some bacteria - Lectins: proteins which bind to carbohydrates on cell surface o Lectin poisoning can cause:  Anaemia  GI distress  Allergic reactions ( vary from mild to severe)  Symptoms: nausea, vomiting, bloating, diarrhea o How to prevent lectin related damage  Cooking seeds and grains in high heat or moist heat will destroy lectin toxocity. o Soaking seeds and grains for at least 1 hourprior to cooking and discarding the soaked water gets rid of some of the lectins. o Proteins can form association with carbohydrates o Interact mostly on the cell surface o Glucose generally doesn’t interact with proteins unless modified o Lectins: proteins that bind to carbohydrates; can cause allergic reactions, illness, etc; technically a poison o Easy to remove from grains/seeds by heating them - Ricin: an example of a lectin; found in castor seeds; also called RIP (ribosome inactivating protein) o Destroys the glycosidic bond between sugar and nitrogen base in rRNA ---- which prevents eukaryotic translation! = Certain Death o Used in the show breaking bad LECTURE 16: INTRODUCTION TO GLYCOLYSIS - All living forms need energy- which can be acquired from the environment in different ways - One way the energy is available for organisms is in the form of nutrients. o Question – how a cell can utilize the energy present in nutrients o All use ATP as energy currency and we all get it from the same food sources which is broken down into glucose o Need proteins for structural support; and proteins and fat can be used as food source because it ends up in the same pathway as glucose - ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)- an adenine, a ribose, and three phosphate groups o Energy is stored between each phosphate group. The bond- phosphoanhydride bond- is broken and energy is released - Glucose: The ultimate molecule that provides the energy that subsequently gets stored in the form of ATP o Prebiotic “soup” made and one of the first organic things was formaldehyde which can be converted into glucose o More reliable energy source - Overview of Cellular Respiration o How is glucose used to produce energy You and me, we are aerobic organisms, and we carry out ‘aerobic respiration’. Glucose is initially converted to pyruvate by a process called Glycolysis. This occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell. Glycolysis does not require oxygen and occurs in an anaerobic environment. Pyruvate then enters the mitochondria where it gets converted to acetylCoA, which enters the Kreb’s cycle. As these reactions happen, NADH and FADH2 which are electron carries are produced. They transport electrons through an ETC, which finally transfer electrons to oxygen and facilitate production of ATP by a process called oxidative phosphorylation. o Mitochondria in the cell: has its own DNA, powerhouse of the cell; o Glucose travels into mitochondria to be converted into energy o Glycolysis: glucose converted into pyruvate which is taken to the cell and converted to ATP o Ten steps between glucose and pyruvate o Some ATP produced in glycolysis - Glycolysis: the most ancient known reaction – from times on earth when only anaerobic organisms were present (before the amount of oxygen was sufficient) o Present in virtually all organisms on earth o Break down food into glucose o Converted from 6 carbon compound into two 3 carbon compounds (pyruvate) o Two molecules of NADH created; will be used later during ETC to create more ATP o A series of 10 steps to convert one molecule of glucose into two pyruvate  First phase is the ATP investment phase or the preparatory phase (1-5)  Second phase is the energy generation phase (6-10) o Net yield of 2 ATP at the end (in the cytoplasm)- get out 4 ATP but initially two were invested so only have a net gain of 2 - Step 1: Energy investment; first priming reaction o One molecule of ATP using the enzyme HEXOKINASE; a single phosphate is added to the glucose molecule and ATP is converted to ADP; negative charge traps glucose in the cell o Trapping glucose in the cell by means of converting it to glucose 6-phosphate – once glucose enters the cell – there are no transporters to transport glucose 6-phosphate so it stays in cell. o One direction – delta G has high negative value—makes it irreversible o -Hexokinase is used to take the H+ off the glucose molecule and split ATP into P and ADP– P added to the glucose molecule o Irreversible reaction– glucose will never be remade; know this because delta G is NEGATIVE; other factors either inhibit or activate the enzyme solely because it is a one way process; its own product will inhibit it (glucose-6- phosphate) o Glucose-6-phosphate can be taken down several different pathways o Converted into glycogen (alpha glucoses) -

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Textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science
Edition: 12
Author: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward
ISBN: 9780321696724

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Dimensional Analysis (Section)(a) If an electric car is