By what specific means do the bits of fine threads align in the electric fields shown in Figure 22.19?
E=1.60*10^-19 C…. Coulombs is the unit of the charge. Mass of e is much less than protons and neutrons and that explains why electrons are so mobile. Electric forces acts on the charges, but this electric force cannot actually be seen and can explain why protons repel and electrons repel. Force is an important law in regards to point charges. Newtons 3 law of motion (action and reaction) same magnitude with opposite direction when the two point charges are opposite causing the directions to be in opposition. Magnitude is the absolute value. F is directly proportional to the magnitudes of q1 and q2 (similar to gravitational force). But now there is a constant k which is the proportionality constant. Epsilon = permittivity of free space (free space = vacuum) with specific units.