A dc-dc converter is a device that takes as an input an unregulated dc voltage and provides a regulated dc voltage as its output. The output voltage may be lower (buck converter), higher (boost converter), or the same as the input voltage. Switching dc-dc converters have a semiconductor active switch (BJT or FET) that is closed periodically with a duty cycle d in a pulse width modulated (PWM) manner. For a boost converter, averaging techniques can be used to arrive at the following state equations (Van Dijk, 1995): L diL dt 1 duc Es C duC dt 1 diL uC R where L and C are, respectively, the values of internal inductance and capacitance; iL is the current through the internal inductor; R is the resistive load connected to the converter; Es is the dc input voltage; and the capacitor voltage, uC, is the converters output. a. Write the converters equations in the form x_ Ax Bu y Cx assuming d is a constant. b. Using the A, B, and C matrices of Part a, obtain the converters transfer function UCs Ess :

FEBRUARY 16, 2016 NO CLASS FEBRUARY 18, 2016 Conditional Expression Shorthand for if statements Variable=(condition) expWhenTrue : expWhenFalse Basically if the condition is met then the first exp is printed, if not than the second is printed Example: o If the grade is greater than 70 the program will print “Passed” o If the grade is less than 70 the program will print “Failed” Double/Float Comparison Doubles and floats are not exact, for example: Expected (or entered) value Actual (how it is actually stored) 0.7 0.699999999999999999994512575 0.3 0.29999999999999999999974578 0.0