A 3.57 g sample of a mixture is decomposed by heating and produces 119 mL measured at and 738 mmHg. What is the mass percent of in the mixture? 2 KClO31s2 2 KCl1s2 + 3 O21g2 KClO3 22.4 C O21g2, KCl KClO3 2 LiOH1s2 + CO21g2 Li2CO31s2 + H2O1l2 CO21g2 25.9 C CO2 CO21g2 1.2 * 106 kg SO21g2. SO21g2, 23 C 2 Al1s2 + 6 HCl1aq2 2 AlCl31aq2 + 3 H21g2 H21g2 75.6 L C3H81g2 O21g2

Lesson 13 Thursday, March 3, 2016 8:41 AM Inherent Error in Sampling • This is where formulaic statistics comes in • Practitioners/researchers employ simple random sampling by clearly and unambiguously identifying each member of a population through the use of a comprehensive sampling frame Systematic random sampling 1. Determine final number of interviews needed for a study, or total sample size 2. Determine sampling interval o Divide the number of elements in the sampling frame (total population) by desired total sample size o The result is a number (n) • Generate sample by selecting every nth element from a sampling frame • First sample element must be se lected randomly Periodicity • Bias that occurs when a sampling list has a cyclical repetition of some population characteristic that coincides with a sampling interval Cluster Sampling • Using groups, rather than individuals • Each cluster serves as a sample element • Geographical designations (one neighborhood/one university) • Used when an exhaustive list of elements is not available o Ex: tornado disaster relief Myth: • Large sample sizes are best • WRONG o Representativeness is key Myth: • Researches should sample a fixed % of a population to produce an acceptable sample size • WRONG o Probability based sampling uses mathematical calculations to debunk this Myth: • Researches should bases sample sizes on industry standards or "typical" sample siz es used in other research projects • WRONG o Make thoughtful decisions based on individual requirements of research needs Sample Distribution • A grouping or arrangement of a characteristic that researchers measure for each sample member • It reflects the frequency with which researchers assign sample characteristics to each point on a measurement scale • Common in survey research. • What's measured might include o Opinions o Attitudes o Behaviors o And related characteristics Standard Deviation • The Standard Deviation is a measure of how spread out numbers are. Its symbol is σ (the Greek letter sigma) The formula is easy: it is the square root of the Variance. Lesson 12 Tuesday, March 1, 2016 8:14 AM Parsimony: • If something is parsimonious it is simple-‐-‐easily applicable to other areas of research Model: • Helps explain relationships in a way that is easy to classify Sampling Methods • Has direct relationship with generalizability Probability and Non-‐Probability sampling methods o Probability is more reliable o Probability means everyone has the same chance of getting selected o Non-‐probability is not as random Population • Constitutes all the members of a group or an entire collection of objects • In PR it is the target public Parameters • A characteristic or property of a population, which are found or determined after collecting data o Ex: if a random probability of 1000 students, 35% own Uggs, you can say 35% of all students are Ugg owners • Assessed after data is collected • There is some error, but small enough to infer characteristics of populations with a high degree of confidence o Sample is a subset of a population or universe Representativeness • Would the size of the sample add validity if its not representative of the target demographic o NO! It's not a part of the target demographic Sample frame • List of members in a target audience Sample unit • Individual persons from this list Probability Sampling • Random samples • Produce results that are highly generalizable to a population Non Probability Sampling • Low in generalizability and external validity so why use it o Quick and easy to generate o Lower cost • Precursor research, or something before a major study (pretest) • Lack of generalizability is a serious limitation o Not selecting randomly, not everyone has an equal chance of being selected 1. Convenience sampling • Ex: college students • Why is sample representation limited o Because only people exposed to the survey will hav e access to it • E.g. GQ Magazine 2. Quota sampling • To get your quota 3. Dimensional sampling • Making sure that someone from a demographic is represented 4. Purposive (judgmental) sampling • A subjective judgment • Example: only picking "cool" people • Forces diversification-‐-‐not representative 5. Volunteer sampling 6. Snowball sampling • You get a volunteer and ask them to grab someone who will grab someone etc. Stratified sampling • Breaking up the sample into smaller groups and then picking people from each strata (group) Simple Random Sampling • Most scientifically valid methodological Forms of simple random sampling 1. Systematic sampling • Example: picking every seven people, but first person must be random 2. Stratified sampling • Break into groups, select equal samples from e ach group 3. Cluster sampling • Take homogenous groups, break them into groups then proportionally draw from each group • Why simple random sampling o Helps eliminate sample bias o Reduces the chance of subgroup overrepresentation or underrepresentation Inherent Error in Sampling • This is where formulaic statistics comes in