Would you predict the surface tension of t-butyl alcohol, COH, to be greater than or less than that of n-butyl alcohol, ? Explain.
• spontaneous generation- living organisms arise from inanimate material • biogenenis- life-from-life • Spontaneous generation was disproved which cause for new theories to come about. • big bang- 13.7 billion years ago, a dense mass of matter exploded in a “big bang”, resulting in the formation of atoms • solar nebular- the solar system was formed from large cloud gases and elements formed from previously existing stars • extraterrestrial- life came from other planets • deep-sea vent- key organic molecules originated from deep-sea vents • creationism- humans, life, the earth, and/or the universe as a whole were created by a supreme being or by another deity’s supernatural intervention • The Four Overlapping Stages Hypothesis • Stage 1: nucleotides and amino acids were produced prior to the existence of cells • Stage 2: nucleotides become polymerized to form RNA and/or DNA, and amino acids become polymerized to form proteins • Stage 3: Polymers became enclosed in membranes • Stage 4: Polymers enclosed in membranes acquired cellular properties • the fossil record • fossils are preserved remnants left by organisms that lived in the past • the relative ages of fossils can be determined by their locations in the rock layers • radiometric dating- can be used to get a more accurate age of fossils • Earth was formed about 4.55 billion years ago (bya) • Prokaryotes appeared about 3.5 bya • Prokaryotes that produced oxygen appeared about 2.4 bya • Single-celled eukaryotes evolved about 1.8 bya • multicellular eukaryotes appeared about 1.5 bya • all the major phyla of animals evolved about 630 million years ago (mya) • Plants and fungi colonized land, amphibians evolved from ﬁsh, and vertebrate life moved onto land about 520 mya • Environmental changes on earth have inﬂuenced the types of organisms that have existed during different periods of time • temperature- not only changes over time, but is also not uniform across the planet • atmosphere- started out with little to no oxygen and then about 2.4 bya, O 2 levels began to rise signiﬁcantly • landmasses- formation of landmasses surrounded by water resulted in two different environments, terrestrial and aquatic • ﬂoods and glaciations- effect living organisms in the vicinity of these events • volcanic eruptions- not only effects living organisms in the vicinity, but also can cause formation of new landmasses, such as islands • meteorite impacts- large meteorites can also effect living organisms in the vicinity, but can also effect surrounding landmasses and environment • Living things have several levels of organization • atoms > molecules > (organelles) > cells • tissues > organs > organisms • population > community > ecosystem > biosphere • atom- the smallest unit of an element; all matter is composed of atoms • molecule- a group of two or more atoms • organelle- structures or “organs” of the cell • cell- the simplest unit of life • tissue- many similar ells that perform a speciﬁc function • organ- several tissues performing a speciﬁc function • organism- an individual living “thing” made up of a collection of different organs • population- groups of interacting individuals of one species occupying the same environment/area • community- all organisms that interact with one another in a particular environment/ area • ecosystem- interactions of a community of organisms with their physical environment • biosphere- the worldwide ecosystem including the air, bodies of water, on the land, and in the soil • evolution- results from heritable changes in one or more characteristics of a population from one generation to the next • The better adapted individuals tend to survive and reproduce. • ﬁtness- a measure of an individual’s ability to survive and reproduce • natural selection- the process of differential survival and reproduction that inevitably leads to changes in allele frequencies over time as those individuals who are the most “ﬁt” survive and leave more offspring • phylogenetics- the study of evolutionary “relatedness” between different organisms • Evidence that supports the theory of evolution • fossils- provide information regarding evolutionary change in a series of related organisms • biogeography- the study of the geographical distribution of extinct and modern species • endemic- naturally found only in a particular location • convergent evolution- two different species from different lineages show similar characteristics because they occupy similar environments • selective breeding- programs and procedures designed to modify traits in domesticated species • homologies- fundamental similarity due to descent from a common ancestor • anatomical homology- the comparison of body structure between different species • developmental homology- the comparison of structures that appear during the development of different organisms • molecular homology- the comparison of cells and molecular information (DNA, RNA, and proteins) of different organisms • population genetics- the study of genes and genotypes in a population • gene pool- all of the alleles for every gene in a given population • polymorphism- traits display variation within a population • polymorphic gene- two or more alleles • monomorphic gene- predominantly single allele • single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)- smallest type of genetic change in a gene; most common, 90% of variation in human gene sequence • Four evolutionary mechanisms that effect microevolution and bring the most genetic change • natural selection- the process in which individuals with certain heritable traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than those without those traits • directional selection- shifts the frequency curve for variations in some phenotypic character in one direction or another; from rare to average • stabilizing selection- acts against extreme phenotypes; favors the survival of the more common intermediate variants (maintains the “status quo”) • diversifying selection- favors the survival of two or more variants of opposite extremes over the intermediate individual • balancing selection- does not favor the survival of one over the other, but maintains genetic diversity • sexual selection- results from individuals with certain traits being more likely to successfully reproduce than others • intrasexual selection- between members of the same sex; males compete • intersexual selection- between members of the opposite sex; female choice • genetic drift- the genetic ﬂuctuation due to random chance from one generation to the next • bottleneck effect- a sudden change in the environment (earthquake, ﬂoods, drought, etc) may drastically reduce the size of a population • founder effect- when a few individuals become isolated from a larger population and form a new colony in a new location • migration- the movement of individuals in or out of a population • gene ﬂow- genetic exchange due to the migration of fertile individuals or gametes between populations • nonrandom mating- occurs when the probability that two individuals in a population will mate is not the same for all possible pairs of individuals • inbreeding- individuals are more likely to mate with close relatives than with distant relatives • outbreeding- individuals are more likely to mate with distant relatives than with close relatives • species- a group of related organisms that share a distinctive set of attributes in nature • speciation- the formation of a new species • allopatric speciation- gene ﬂow is interrupted or reduced when a population becomes isolated from other populations • sympatric speciation- speciation takes place in geographically overlapping populations • Biologists use characteristics to identify a species • morphological traits- physical characteristics • reproductive isolation- prevents one species from successfully interbreeding with other species • prezygotic- before formation of a zygote • habitat isolation- two species encounter each other rarely, or not at all, because they occupy different habitats • temporal isolation- species that breed at different times of the day, different seasons, or different years • behavioral isolation- courtship rituals and other behaviors unique to a species act as reproductive barriers • mechanical isolation- morphological differences prevent successful mating • gametic isolation- two species attempt to interbreed, but the gametes one species may not be able to fertilize the gametes of another species • postzygotic- block development of a viable and fertile individual after fertilization • hybrid inviability- gamete of one species is fertilized by gamete from another species, but fertilized egg can’t develop past early embryonic stages • hybrid sterility- hybrid is viable, but sterile (mule) • hybrid breakdown- some ﬁrst-generation hybrids are fertile, but when they mate with another species or with either parent species, offspring of the next generation have genetic abnormalities that are lethal • molecular features- compare features to identify similarities and differences among different populations • ecological factors and evolutionary relationships- variety of factors related to an organism’s habitat can be used to distinguish one species from another • ecology- the study of the interactions of organisms with each other and their environment • abiotic interactions- between organisms and non-living environment • biotic interactions- all interactions between organisms • organismal ecology- individual organisms’ behavior, physiology, morphology, etc. in response to interactions with the abiotic environment • physiological ecology- how organisms are physiologically adapted to there environment and how the environment impacts the distribution of species • behavioral ecology- how the behavior of individual organisms contributes to their survival and reproductive success • population ecology- the factors which affect population composition, growth, size, and density • density- the number of organisms in a given unit, area, or volume • dispersion- the way individuals are spaced within the population’s living area • growth rate- the overall number of individuals (birth v death) • community ecology- interactions between populations of different species in a given area and their effects on structure and organization • ecological succession- the gradual and continuous change in a species composition of a community following a disturbance • primary succession- plants and animals invade on newly exposed sites where soil has not yet formed • secondary succession- occurs when a site has previously supported life but has undergone a disturbance that leaves soil intact/ present • ecosystem ecology- the responses and changes in the community as a result of interactions between • Hierarchical organization of living systems • atom > molecule > organelle > cell > tissue > organ > organism > population > community > ecosystem > biosphere • biome- a large, relatively distinct terrestrial region with speciﬁc characteristics • terrestrial biomes • tropical forests- warm and rainy, near equator • temperate forests- cold to hot, well deﬁned seasons • temperate coniferous forests- also known as taiga, largest; cold, short, wet seasons • grassland- dominated by grass • desert- hot days and cold nights • tundra- coldest of all biomes • mountain ranges- mountainous • aquatic biomes • marine- saltwater • the open ocean- largest, deep ocean • pelagic zone- includes those waters further from the land, basically the open ocean • benthic zone- the area below the pelagic zone, does not include the deepest parts of the ocean • abyssal zone- the deep ocean • intertidal zone- beach • coral reef- tropical, warm shallow waters • freshwater • lentic habitats- lakes (bigger) ponds (smaller) • lotic habitats- rivers and streams • wetlands- marshes, swamps, and bogs • biogeography- the study of geographic distribution of extinct and living species • populations can have different levels of dispersion • clumped distribution- individuals live close together in groups; this is the most common pattern • ransom distribution- individuals live at variable and random distances from one another; rare • key factor in population growth is how they reproduce • semelparity- “big bang” reproduction in which an individual produces a large number of offspring and then dies • iteroparity- individual produces only a few offspring during repeated reproductive episodes • Population growth depends on: • age of ﬁrst reproduction • frequency of reproduction • number of offspring produced • life span • death rate • ecological footprint- the environmental impact of an individual or a population • Population interactions help limit population growth • intraspeciﬁc- interactions between individuals of the same species • interspeciﬁc- interactions between individuals of different species • Several types of interactions • competition- an interaction between two or more species in which both organisms rely and compete for the same resources and are harmed to some extent • predation- the action of the predator results in the death of the prey • herbivory- the consumption of plant material by animals • symbiotic relationship- involves a symbiont, which lives off another species, called the host • parasitism- the symbiont feeds off another; beneﬁts at the host’s expense • mutualism- both species beneﬁt from one another • commensalism- one species beneﬁts and the other is unaffected • biodiversity- the diversity of life forms in a given location • genetic diversity- consists of the amount of genetic variation occurring within and between populations • species diversity- the number and relative abundance of species in a community • ecosystem diversity- the diversity of structure and function within an ecosystem • extinction- the process by which a species dies out • Four main human-induced threats to species • introduced species- those species moved by humans from a native location to another location • direct exploitation- hunting and ﬁshing of animals, birds, and ﬁsh • habitat destruction- altering the normal habitat by deforestation, agriculture crops, buildings, etc. • climate change- altering climate, atmosphere, and ecological systems reduce Earth’s capacity to sustain life • bioremediation- use of living organisms to detoxify polluted habitats