In 1998, establish each identity.
I. Election of 1940 a. R convention in 1940 i. District attorney Tom Dewey. Prosecutor who was responsible for jailing mobsters. 1. Isolationist, though not outspoken 2. Moderate republican ii. Senator Robert Taft of Ohio 1. Outspoken isolationist 2. Conservative iii. Neither of these two got the Republican nomination 1. Wendell Wilkie a. Businessman b. Attorney c. Interventionist i. Strongly for, and outspoken for supporting Britain ii. The east quickly got behind him iii. Believed the Us had to take vigorous action to support Britain and that FDR was not doing enough, and he was ready to go to war if need be. b. D convention of 1940 i. FDR 1. Running for a third term a. Was a tradition to only run two terms back to back b. He decided to do this because of the fact that the US was possibly on the brink of entering the war. c. He may have thought about it when war began to break out, but it wasn't clear Britain and France were going to suffer so soon. d. They did not really have anyone else to put up that would uphold all the work he did. e. Most delegates agreed for him to run f. Was sneaky about it i. Wanted democratic party to draft him for president ii. Some were fed up with this and hated Henry Wallace. c. After the conventions Wilkie and Roosevelt seemed to be nearly the same. It was helpful to Roosevelt that Wilkie wasn't against some things that Roosevelt was doing. i. Push for conscription ii. Supported exchange of destroyers for naval bases. iii. Wilkies poll numbers went up and FDR's went down. The democrats then decided to wage a fairly dirty campaign against Wilkie. They succeeded in driving his poll numbers down. By sept. Oct. Wilkie was persuaded that he has to differentiate himself from Roosevelt about Foreign affairs and had to play on the fears of Americans about going overseas. iv. Once Wilkie started doing this his pulls went up. FDR then decided that he should make the promise that no American boys are going to be sent off to fight in Europe. He won the election. d. By Nov. 1940 the US was not doing anything for Britain really. Before the British ambassador suddenly died he talked to American newsman and said " Fellas Britain is broke." e. Harry Hopkins- went to Wilkies apt. in Manhattan to talk about how relations could be mended after election. Wilkie would be supportive of Roosevelt II. Lend Lease Act Jan. 1941- March 1941 (ratification) a. Roosevelt creates the lend- lease act to help Britain. b. The concept of this was that Britain would lend military supplies and would later be reimbursed for this lease. c. Isolationists made fun of it by saying you were lending chewing gum. d. It was really a loan that would be repaid in good an and services. e. This was a major step that departed from neutrality . III. Russia becomes and Ally a. June 22, 1941 i. Russia is invaded ii. Finland and other surrounding Nazi German controlled areas attack b. They become an ally with the British IV. Did President Roosevelt and Congress' actions show that they were either strong or weak in handling Hitler between the outbreak of war in Europe in 1939 and Hitler's declaration of war on December 11, 1941 a. Neutrality acts were in control. i. Did not allow the US to ship supplies. ii. Cash and Carry 1. Technically all could do this. 2. The British Navy kept the Germans from doing so of course. b. The next thing that the government did against Hitler after cash and carry i. The destroyer base deal ii. Complaints from the isolationists was weak because they wanted hemispheric control c. During the battle of Britain since lots of pilots and aircrafts were lost. The US returned 350 aircrafts that the US had purchased from GB and delivered. d. Problem was that for a while there was an unwillingness to do more for a while. e. Summer of 1940 i. The draft was enforced 1. Last one was for WWI 2. 1 year long and then Congress would have to renew it 3. Restriction that said "no drafted Americans could be sent overseas to fight." 4. Was renewed 1941 a. Margin was 1 vote, it was almost not renewed ii. FDR was reluctant to call for the draft. f. Lend Lease Act i. Any country that was going against Hitler could be lent military supplies and would later be reimbursed for this lease. ii. It was really a loan that would be repaid in good an and services. iii. The problem was transportation of these goods 1. The U boats were a problem iv. April 1941- the US Navy secretly began patrolling the North Atlantic to provide American shipping assistance that was going to Iceland. v. July 1941 1. American troops replaced British Troops in Iceland 2. Declared Western Atlantic as a neutral zone and was to be patrolled by the Navy a. Hemispheric defense 3. US Navy started helping the British Navy track the German subs. 4. By Sept. 1941. It was clear that Germans knew what was up. They attacked the Greer. It was damaged but not sunk. No American lives lost. a. US Navy was then allowed to shoot German subs on sight. b. FDR asked congress for authority to arm merchant ships (this is authorized in Nov. after the Reuben James c. Oct. 17, The Kearny is hit. i. 11 casualties d. Nov. 1941 i. Reuben James - 115 Americans killed g. Hitler's Opinion on all of this i. Hitler was not fond of the German Navy nor did he have respect for them really. ii. Hitler was trying to avoid having the US join the war. Had given orders to not attack any American naval vessels.