Explain why, for isoelectronic ions, the anions are larger than the cations.
Location Prominent Reds Prominent Whites Classifications Labeling Climate Pinot Noir Riesling Appellation Alsace Controlee (76%) Type of Wine Lowest Rainfall in all of France Gewurztraminer Appellation Cremant d'Alsace (20%) Vintage Year Longer Growing Season than Germany Soil Types: Limestone/Sand, Pinot Blanc Alsace Grand Cru Percentage Alcohol Clay/Marlstone, Flint/Schist/Shale/Slate Long, cool growing season that allows Pinot Gris Volume Content white grape varieties to produce more armoatics and develop higher sugar levels Alsace Name of the producer (including if it is a Sylvanaer grower or if it was just a company that bottled the wine) Mis en boutielle a la Propriete/Domaine: Muscat "Estate bottled" Mis en boutielle Par: "Bottled by" Sur Lie: wine is allowed to sit on yeast vells to develop texture and add flavor Cabernet Franc Chennin Blanc Pays Nantais [Muscadet] Sec-dry Location: South and West of Paris Grolleau Muscadet (Melon de bourgogne) Anjou [Chennin Blanc, Savennieres] demi sec- off dry Ranged from temperate in the west to continental in the east Microclimates influenced by the Atlantic Gamay a Noir a Jus Blanc Sauvignon Blanc Saumer [Chennin Blanc, Saumur Champigny] maelleux- semi sweet Ocean to the west and by the Loire River Loire Pinot Noir Touraine [Sauvignon Blanc, Chenin Blanc, Cheverney, doux- sweet Limestone gives wine a flinty quality Vouvray] Wines named after the places where East/Upper Loire [Sauvignon Blanc, Sancerre] grapes are grown (villages) Cool climate makes wines more vegetal Place dictates the grape which can be Climate best suited for production of white used & sparkling wines Most regional wines do not list a sub- Right Bank: Soils are a mix of clay, sand, Merlot Semillon AOC Levels: region, those that do can blend grapes and limestone with less gravel. Merlot from up to 47 different villages dominates the blend Left Bank: deep gravel soils. Cabernet Cabernet Sauvignon Sauvignon Blanc Regional (Bordeaux AOC) Village only= village wine Sauvignon dominates the blend Cabernet Franc Muscadelle Sub Regional (Haut-Medoc, AOC) Village + Vineyard= Premier Cru Bordeaux Malbec, Petit Verdot, Commune (Margaux, AOC) Vineyard only= Grand Cru Carmenere Mis en bouteille au domaine, mis au Shateau (Chateau Margaux) domaine, mis en bouteille a la propriete negociants It's about brand not the land Burgundy Pinot noir Chardonnay Grand Cru (best vineyard sites) It's about the land not the brand Continental Climate Gamay (grown in Beaujolais) Aligote Premier Cru (above average) Village only=Village Wine Cold winters;hot summers Commune/Village Wines (vary more in quality, associated with the village they come from) Village + Vineyard= Premier Cru Weather= variable/unpredictable Sometimes the Village adopts the name Regional Wine (vary by region) of the grand cru vineyard in it's area aspotential for frost, hail and heavy rain at part of the name the wrong time of the year Vineyard only= Grand Cru Causes differences in vintage quality Mis en boutielle par/dans nos caves=Negociants No moderating effects to regulate temp Beaujolais Gamay Beaujolais Noveau Slightly warner than Burgundy Beaujolais Superiur Wineayrds located at the bottom of hillsides Beaujolais Villages Cru Beaujolais Location Prominent Reds Prominent Whites Classifications Labeling Climate Continental climate with harsh winterns, Syrah (Northern Rhone) Viognier (Northern Rhone) AOC French regulation laws AOC French regulation laws warm summers (Northern Rhone) Southern Rhone blends of Southern Rhone blends of Red Cote Rotie Mediterranean climate with mild winters, below: below: hot summers (Southern Rhone) Drought can be a problem but limited Grenache Ugni Blanc Hermitage irrigation is permitted (Southern) Makes mostly reds, fuller, higher alcohol Rhone Syrah (Northern Rhone) Roussanne Crozes Hermitage content Mourvedre Bourbolenc Saint Joseph Carigan Picpoul Cornas Cinsaut Clairette Saint Pernay Condriue Chateau Gillet Cabernet Sauvignon Chardonnay (AVAs) Varietal-min 75% grape variety labeled Generally warm to hot, but very variable due to the influence of the Pacific Ocean Ocean breezes and fog moderate temperature Merlot Sauvignon Blanc Napa Valley Generic- place name from famous region downward Pinot Noir Chennin Black (mostly for Sonoma Valley Proprietary- mae-up name Areas located on the interior of the state don't blending) experience fluctuations Mediterranean-type climate: Rains fall in the winter, Zinfandel Pinot Gris/Girgio Carneros CA- 100% (from location) but not during the summer growing season California Viognier (trendy) Russian River Valley County- 75% (from location) Irrigation to supply grapevines water AVA- 85% (from location) Droughts can cause vintage variation Vineyard- 95% (from location) Altitude & Soil are also important Estate- 100% (from location) State or county- 75% (Vintage) AVA- 85% (Vintage) (NY) Cold growing easons in Finger Lakes Riesling AVAs can kill vines if temp drops too dramatically. White wines do better here (LI) Climate is warmer/maritime with a Cayuga (Hybrid) (Finger Lakes) Finger Lakes longer growing season, so red grape varieties (Merlot, Cabernet, Red Blends) do better here Amelioration is allowed here (esp in NYS Ravet/Vignole (Hybrid) (Finger Lakes) Cayuga Lake cool regions) also chaptalization New York Seyval Blan (Hybrid) (Finger Lakes) Seneca Lake Vidal (Hybrid) (Long Island) North Fork Traminette (Hybrid) (Long Island) The Hamptons on the South Fork Concord (Labrusca) (Long Island) Long Island Delaware (Labrusca) (Hudson Valley) Hudson River Valley Niagra (Labrusca) (Lake Erie) Lake Erie (Niagra Escarpment) Niagra Escarpment