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. The length of a room is 16.40 m, its width is 4.5 m, and

Physics: Principles & Problems | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9780078458132 | Authors: Paul W Zitzewitz ISBN: 9780078458132 109

Solution for problem 76 Chapter 1

Physics: Principles & Problems | 9th Edition

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Physics: Principles & Problems | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9780078458132 | Authors: Paul W Zitzewitz

Physics: Principles & Problems | 9th Edition

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Problem 76

. The length of a room is 16.40 m, its width is 4.5 m, and its height is 3.26 m. What volume does the room enclose?

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Thursday, March 17, 2016 Week 10 Memory Systems (cont.) • 3 main memory systems (can be dissociated, but not completely separate) • 1. hippocampus • 2. amygdala 3. dorsal striatum • • early evidence showed that these areas can be dissociated, but later evidence shows that there is an interaction • stress and time can cause a shift between memory systems • sometimes they compete, sometimes they cooperate • double dissociation experiments: hippocampal and striatal memory systems SEPARATE win-shift strategy: radio arm maze • • reward in arm, “win” by getting food reward • once the rat gets the food in one, has to go to the others • hippocampus-dependent: working memory • lesions in hippocampus impair this task • lesions in striatum have no effect on performance requires spatial, flexible and relational memory • • win-stay task: radial arm maze • there are cues in the maze - ex: light indicates presence of food • if the light is still in the same arm, can go back to that one to find more food • procedural/rule-based memory • based on striatum (lesions here impair this task) hippocampal lesions have no effect here • • triple dissociation experiment: • investigates roles of: • hippocampus: implicated flexible/relational memory • win-shift: each arm baited with food reward (if rat goes back into that arm, will be empty) optimal performance: goes into each arm once (8 choices) • • repeat this for several days • S-S: stimulus-stimulus (associations among stimuli - map tells you relationally where reward is) • fornix lesion: cuts connection to hippocampus • shows SOME improvement, but never get as good as the sham/controls sham lesion: no actual lesion (mimic the dramatic effects of the surgery) • • show lots of improvement, learn quickly • control animal: show lots of improvement, learn quickly • lesion to the lateral amygdala: do BETTER than controls (or no effect - unclear) • does not impair performance • lesion to dorsal striatum: striatum: implicated in procedural/rule-based memory • • win-stay: 4 lit arms, 4 unlit arms • after animal goes into lit arm once, light stays on • after going to the same lit arm twice, light goes off (to mimic 8 choices from win- shift) 1 Thursday, March 17, 2016 • S-R: stimulus response • simple rule: go to the lit arm dorsal striatum lesion: impairs performance • • sham lesion: no actual lesion (mimic the dramatic effects of the surgery) • fornix lesion: no difference • lateral amygdala lesion: • amygdala: implicated in EMOTIONAL memory • conditioned place preference animal placed in one arm with a pile of food (animal conditioned into a preference • for this location) • subsequent trial: put animal in an empty arm • later test: put animal in the middle to see if it goes to the correct arm • lateral amygdala lesion: impairs performance • fornix lesion: no effect dorsal striatum lesion: no effect • • sham lesion: no actual lesion (mimic the dramatic effects of the surgery) • no effect • control: no effect • response learning takes longer than place learning • plus maze: walls in shape of plus, put food somewhere place task: animal rewarded for returning to a place in space (independent of where you • start) • food remains in the same place • dependent on the hippocampus (lesions impair this) • response task: animal rewarded for turning a certain way • ex: food always to the right of wherever they start • dependent on striatum (rule-based) • place + response task (aka dual-response task) • animal can use either hippocampus OR striatum to solve the task (as a researcher, you don’t know which one the animals is using) • to test which one has been learned: probe trial • flip the maze • those who have been using response strategy will continue to turn the same way • those who have been using place strategy will go to the same place • Chang and Gold (2003) • trained animals on pace or response task • administered lidocaine (local anesthetic - blocks voltage-gated sodium channels) DIRECTLY to brain region • acts as a temporary lesion - blocks neurons in that area from firing (temporary inactivation) • artificial CSF: innane substance • place task: lidocaine into hippocampus impaired learning • expected • response task: lidocaine to hippocampus FACILITATES learning • unexpected (response task thought to be only dependent on striatum) • inactivation of hippocampus facilitates response learning • theory: hippocampus and striatum compete with each other for control of behavioral output • hippocampus leaves, can focus all attention on striatal task 2 Thursday, March 17, 2016 • —> interactive memory systems (NOT independent) • micro dialysis: in vivo method of studying neurotransmitter release chronically implant dialysis probe • • hooked up to machine that analyzes concentration of different metabolites • depending on membrane, certain bodies cross membrane • quantifies small amounts • can hook animal up, engage them in a task and see which neurotransmitters are coming into play McIntyre experiment: using micro dialysis • • conditioned cue preference task • measured ACh release in hippocampus • percent time in correct arm STRONGLY decreased with increasing baseline levels of ACh in hippocampus • worst memory: most ACh release in hippocampus taken as evidence of competition between amygdala and hippocampus • • active hippocampus: poor amygdala results • deactivated hippocampus: GOOD amygdala results • later measured ACh release in amygdala • used hippocampus-dependent task • more ACh in amygdala correlated with BETTER learning on hippocampus-dependent task • evidence that amygdala activity facilitates other areas • hippocampus competes with both striatum and amygdala - suppression allows for better performance in tasks that require other areas • amygdala can cooperate with hippocampus • interactions across time: • animals trained on dual solution task (ambiguous) - 100 trials • early on: after first 20 trials - almost all animals used spatial strategy • using hippocampus • over time, more and more animals use response strategy • using dorsal striatum • by the end: almost all the animals used the response strategy • hippocampus used initially - good with association and explicit awareness • conscious awareness has a limited field, so needs to be passed off to striatum • signifies habit formation - procedural memory • once it becomes a motor habit, skills begin to become dependent on the striatum • habit drives most of behavior • “corticosteroids operate as a switch between memory systems” - Schwabe • hole-board task: animal placed in the center • most holes are dead ends, one hole is an escape route • in training: they get a cue AND a place (on the same hole) • see which one they use (place or stimulus-response strategy) • stressors and controls: • untreated: ALL animals use spatial strategy (using hippocampus) • vehicle injection: • corticosterone: • restraint stress: • aMR (cortisol receptor antagonist) • animals in stressed conditions: some use response strategy 3 Thursday, March 17, 2016 • findings: stress SHIFTS strategy away from hippocampus (explicit) to more procedural (unconscious) memory spatial learners took longer than the ones who shifted • • shifting to procedural strategy improves latency to escape (helps to escape faster) • under stressful conditions, don’t want to sit around thinking about what to do (evolutionarily) • cortical association areas - all 3 memory systems associated with cortical areas • olfactory prefrontal • • cingulate • parietal • temporal 4

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Textbook: Physics: Principles & Problems
Edition: 9
Author: Paul W Zitzewitz
ISBN: 9780078458132

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