The Periodic Table, Molecules and Molecular Compounds, and Ions and Ionic Compounds (Sections)Using the periodic table, predict the charges of the ions of the following elements: (a) Ga, (b) Sr, (c) As, (d) Br, (e) Se.
So How Stable is Personality - Personality changes somewhat in childhood but becomes more stable as we age - Meta-analysis of 150 studies tracked participants for at least one year - Test/retest reliability: Frequently expressed with an r. Square the numeric value (0.5^2 = 0.25), so 25% of the variability in one construct can be explained in another construct - Personality at T2 (time 2), about 25% of it can be explained by your personality at T1 (time 1) Age-Related Change - As we age, personality becomes more ingrained - However, some reliable changes occur as we get older o We become more: Agreeable Conscientious o And become less: Neurotic Extraverted Open to new experiences - These personality changes seem to be biologically-based and seem to manifest across cultures Temperaments - Temperaments: Biologically-based tendencies to feel or act in certain ways that have an influence on personality/behavior across lifespan o Innate, whereas personality is affects by life events o 100% of the variability in temperament is attributable to genetics/biology o More stable than personality o Broader than personality - Three Temperaments: o Activity Level: Overall amount of energy a person exhibits o Emotionality: Intensity of emotional reactions o Sociability: General tendency to affiliate with others Psychopathology Key Terms - Psychopathology: Illness of psychological processes - Psychological disorder: A diagnosable psychological illness o Produces clinically significant distress and/or impairments in functioning - Symptomology: Set of symptoms characteristic of an illness - Etiology: Factors that contribute to the development of an illness - Prognosis: Likely course of an illness - Prevalence: Proportion of populations with the condition/illness o Point vs. Lifetime o Point prevalence refers to amount of people that meet criteria for an illness at one point in time o Lifetime prevalence refers to amount of people that will develop an illness at some point in their lives Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) - Used by mental health professionals for making valid diagnoses - Published by the American Psychiatric Association - First edition = 1952 - Latest edition = 2013 - > 150 mental disorders (20 major classes) - Each disorder has a set of criteria that must be met to reach a diagnosis - Categorical (rather than dimensional) approach* o * You either have a psychological disorder or you don’t (no in between) o A dimensional approach, on the other hand, would put mental illness on a continuum from high to low levels o Some phenomena are better suited for a dimensional approach (such as height), other phenomena are better suited for a categorical approach (such as pregnancy) - Views disorders as discrete* (rather than overlapping) o Each disorder is distinct and fundamentally different from another disorder Problems with Categorical Approach - Where do you draw the line on the frequency/severity graph o What is the cut off for “having a disorder” and “not having a disorder” o Are the people right before the cut off and right after the cutoff really fundamentally different o Perhaps a dimensional approach is better suited Some researchers advocate for this model, however the dimensional approach does have its shortcomings Not as clean as categorical approach, it has parsimony on its side - Another problem with DSM-5 is that people seldom fit neatly into the precise categories provided o Many individuals meet criteria for more than one disorder (comorbidity); 50% rule (about 50% of people who meet criteria for 1 disorder will meet criteria for 2 disorders, about 50% of people who meet criteria for 2 disorders will meet criteria for 3 disorders, etc.) o E.g. Someone with generalized anxiety disorder may also meet criteria for panic disorder, substance abuse, major depressive disorder, etc. o What does this rampant comorbidity imply about psychopathology Core factors that underpin these various disorders Similar to intelligence testing (IQ) Language skills, mathematical reasoning, visual/spatial skills, and working memory are all positively correlated, so there’s an underlying factor (g), something similar is happening to psychopathology Introduction to Disorders (Caspi et al. 2014) - Anxiety is an underlying factor for: anxiety disorders, OCD, and PTSD - Mood is an underlying factor for: PTSD, depressive disorders, and bipolar disorder - Anxiety and mood are positively correlated = another underlying factor called internalizing o Internalizing 1) Inward-focused pathology 2) Pathology that is characterized by negative affect/emotion [at risk for these internalizing disorders if you are high in personality trait neuroticism] 3) Much more common in females relative to males - Thought disturbances are used to characterize bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and dissociative disorders - Externalizing includes Substance abuse, antisocial personality disorder, and ADHD o Externalizing 1) Outward-focused pathology 2) Disinhibition: Inability to regulate or inhibit impulses and urges 3) More common in males relative to females - Internalizing, thought disturbances, and externalizing are all positively correlated = underlying factor called p Anxiety Disorders (Anxiety) - Marked and disproportionate anxiety (apprehension about a future event) and/or fear (reaction to a current event) - Hyperactivation of the amygdala and sympathetic nervous system (e.g., increased heart rate, breathing, perspiration) - Typically, avoidance of triggers o Maintains belief that anxiety-provoking stimuli is in fact danger, “bubble is not popped” - Lifetime prevalence = 25% (25% of the population will meet criteria for one or more anxiety disorders at one point in their lives) o One of the most common disorders - Specific Phobia: Fear triggered by specific object or situation (e.g. dogs, flying, etc.) - Social Anxiety Disorder: Fear of social evaluation (especially when public speaking, meeting new people, etc.) - Panic Disorder: Sudden attacks of intense panic, fear, and terror, as well as anxiety about having additional panic attacks - Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Incessant worry about a number of “everyday” matters (e.g. occupation, relationships, health, etc.) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders aka OCD (Anxiety) - Obsessions: Unwanted (usually bizarre) thoughts that produce anxiety o E.g. “My hands are covered with germs and I’m going to contaminate my family and they’re going to die,” “I left my stove on, my house is going to burn down, my children are going to perish” - Compulsions: Acts performed to reduce anxiety, usually repetitive o E.g. Washing hands excessively throughout the day, praying excessively - Removed from regular anxiety category because the neural basis of OCD is fundamentally distinct from anxiety disorders o Dysfunction in orbitofrontal cortex PTSD (Anxiety/Mood) - Exposure to terrifying event (e.g. serious car accident. rape, active combat) - Distinct because it is the only disorder in the DSM that has a specific cause/trigger - Involves hyperarousal, avoidance of trauma reminders, low mood, and re-experiencing symptoms (e.g. nightmares and flashbacks) - Symptoms persist for at least one month post-trauma Depressive Disorders (Mood) - Sad mood and/or anhedonia (diminished interest/pleasure) with other depressive symptoms (e.g. fatigue, weight gain/loss, memory problems) o Sadness is very high negative affect, anhedonia is very low levels of positive affect o Positive e affect and negative affect are two separate dimensions - > 2 weeks: Major depressive disorder - > 2 years: persistent depressive disorder - Associated with low levels of serotonin and norepinephrine Depression and Neuroendocrine System - Depression is associated with high levels stress and heightened reactivity to stress - HPA Axis (body’s stress response) overactivity - Hypercortisolism: Cortisol in high levels is toxic, it can dehydrate structures in the brain o Chronically elevated levels of cortisol (stress hormone) o Damages brain (particularly hippocampus) Bipolar Disorders (Mood/Thought Disturbances) - Bipolar I Disorder: At least one manic episode (elevated mood, increased energy/activity, racing thoughts, occasionally psychosis), depression is not necessary however it is common in bipolar I - Bipolar II Disorder: Alternative periods of depression and hypomania (less extreme than mania) - Heritability estimate = 0.85****** Exam, 85% of the variability in bipolar disorder is attributable to genetic factors Schizophrenia (Thought Disturbances) - Disconnection from reality - Usually entails psychotic symptoms: o Delusions: Firmly-held beliefs contrary to reality, cognitive in nature (belief or thought) ***** Exam E.g. “I believe that the President of the US is after me and he wants to kill me” o Hallucinations: Sensory experiences in the absence of relevant stimulation from environment, very commonly they are auditory for schizophrenic patients, visual is very rare *******Exam E.g. “Hearing Obama’s voice in my head when he isn’t there” - Psychosis most frequently attributable to dopamine dysregulation Dissociative Disorders (Thought Disturbances) Substance Use Disorders - Think back to our classes of psychoactive drugs (e.g. sedatives) - Problematic pattern of use that impairs functioning o Impacts work/academic functioning o Causes problems in interpersonal relationships o Causes legal problems o Hinders self-care - Doesn’t have to do without amount of use, but rather the consequences of that use o To what degree does your use of a substance impact your day-to- day functioning - Frequently characterized by: o Tolerance: Reaction to a drug is progressively reduced, requiring increased dose to achieve desired effect o Withdrawal: Group of symptoms that occur upon the discontinuation of a drug Antisocial Personality Disorder ADHD