The Periodic Table, Molecules and Molecular Compounds, and Ions and Ionic Compounds (Sections)
Predict the chemical formula for the ionic compound formed by: (a) Ca2+ and Br-, (b) K+ and CO3 2-, (c) Al3+ and CH3COO-, (d) NH4 + and SO4 2-, (e) Mg2+ and PO4 3-.
Matrix: a surface on which a design is prepared before being transferred through pressure to a receiving surface such as paper. Edition: written by the artist on each approved impression, along with the number of the impression within that edition. There are 4 basic methods for making an art print: relief, intaglio, lithography, and screen printing. Relief: describes any printing method in which the image to be printed is raised from a background. Woodcut: the artist first draws the desired image on a block of wood. All the areas that are not meant to print are cut and gouged out of the wood so that the image stand out in a relief. When the block is inked, only the raised areas take the ink. Wood Engraving: uses a block of wood as a matrix. But whereas a wood cut matrix is created on a surface cut along the grain, a wood engraving matrix is created on a surface across the grain. Sanded to mirror smoothness and worked with finely pointed tools, and end grain block can be cut with equal ease in any direction and lends itself well to detail. Linocut: very similar to woodcut, however, Linoleum is much softer than wood. The softness makes linoleum easer to cut, but it also limits the number of crisp impressions that can be produced. Linoleum has no grain, so it is possible to make cuts in any direction with equal ease. Albrecht Durer: 1471-1528 The first of the northern European artists who seems to us as “modern” in his outlook Would date his work and sign them with AD Born in southern Germany, he was the son of a goldsmith At age 15, he went to study in the workshop of Michael Wolgemut, who was considered a leading painter in Germany, stayed with him for 4 years Many would argue that he was the greatest print maker of all time In 1515, he was appointed court painter to the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian l Intaglio: Italian word for “to cut.” The exact opposite of a relief, in that the areas meant to print are below the surface of the printing plate. Uses a sharp tool or acid to make depressions in a metal plate Engraving: developed from the medieval practice of incising (cutting) linear designs in armor and other metal surfaces. The basic tool of engraving is the burin, a sharp V-shaped instrument used to cut lines into the metal plate. (closely related to drawing in pen and ink) Drypoint: similar to engraving, except that the cutting instrument used is a drypoint needle. The artist draws on the plate, usually a copper plate, almost as freely as on can draw on paper with a pencil. As the needle scratches across the plate, it raises a burr, or thin ridge of metal. The burr holds the ink, making a line that is softer and less sharply detailed than an engraved line. Mezzotint: a reverse process, in which the artist works from dark to light. To prepare a mezzotint plate, the artist first roughens the entire plate with a sharp tool called a rocker. Lighter tones can be created only by smoothing or rubbing out these rough spots so as not to trap the ink. Etching: is done with acids, which eat lines and depressions into a metal plate much as sharp tools cut those depressions in the other methods. To make an etching, an artist first coats the entire printing plate with an acid- resistant called ground, which is made from beeswax, asphalt, and other materials. Next, the artist draws on the coasted plate with an etching needle. Then the entire plate is dipped in acid. Aquatint: a variation on the etching process, a way of achieving flat areas of tone, gray values or intermediate values of color. To prepare the plate, the artist first dusts it with finely powdered resin. Then the plate is heated, so the resin sticks to it. When the plate is dipped in acid, the acid bites wherever there is no resin, all around the particles. Lithography: the process of printing from a flat surface treated so as to repel the ink except where it is required for printing. Offset Lithography a method of mass- production printing in which the images on metal plates are transferred (offset) to rubber blankets or rollers and then to the print media. Planography: a printing process in which the printing surface is flat. Kathe Kollwitz: 1867-1945 Did the bulk of her works in prints and drawings Concentrated on black and white Was born in Prussia in an intellectual middle class family Received her art training in Munich and Berlin Married a physician who supported her career Focused on etchings and woodcuts, and then to lithographs when her eyesight grew weaker Five Major Themes: the artist herself in many self-portraits, the ties between mothers and their children, the unspeakable cruelties of war, the hardships of the working class, and death as a force unto itself. Had two sons, her first tragedy in life is when her youngest son died in World War l Lived long enough to see her beloved grandson die in World War ll Screen-printing: the screen is a fine mesh of silk or synthetic fiber mounted in a frame, rather like a window screen. (Silk is the traditional material, so the process had often been called serigraphy.) The printmaker stops out screen areas that are not meant to print by plugging up the holes, usually with some kind of glue. The same process as using a stencil, a piece of cardboard from which the forms of the shapes and letters have been cut out. Monotype: made by an indirect process, like any other print, but, as the prefix “mono” implies, only one print results. To make one, an artist draws on a metal plate or some other smooth surface, often with diluted oil paints. Then the plate is run through a press to transfer the image to paper. The original is destroyed or so altered that there can be no duplicate impressions. Impression: the printed image after a matrix Multiples: the process of making multiple impressions by using a matrix, which is called print making. Glicee: a high-quality inkjet printer to make individual copies. Renaissance People I should know: Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337), Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446), Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378-1455), Donatello (1386-1466), Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519), Michelangelo (1475-1564), and Raphael (1483-1520). 1400-1600 A.D Brought vast changes to the world of art Was the time when the concept of “art” arose Definition: rebirth Revival to the interest in Greek and Roman culture Artists worked to reproduce the real and natural world because it was God’s greatest creation This is where Chiaroscuro was created The nude appeared in art, because it was considered to be the noblest of God’s creations Artists studied anatomy Artists were no longer crafts workers, but learned persons whose creative powers were viewed as almost miraculous Artists lived in the courts of the nobles and popes, they were sought after and their services were in demand BEGAN IN ITALY Scholars believed that Donatello was the first to use marble in sculpting Donatello’s teacher was Lorenzo Ghiberti Artist’s had long used architectural settings to structure their compositions Triangular (or pyramidal) organization would remain a favorite device of Italian Renaissance artists. Renaissance would turn to Greek and Roman gods and goddesses for subject matter Some of the most celebrated works of Western art were produced in the era known as High Renaissance, between 1500-1525 The outstanding figures of this era was Da Vinci and Michelangelo Renaissance Man: someone who is very well informed about, or very good at doing, many different, often quite unrelated, things. Leonardo Da Vinci is the one who mostly embodies the term Renaissance Man Florence is where Leonardo was when he did most of his work, as was Michelangelo Michelangelo: Sistine Chapel, David In 1546, the Pope name Michelangelo the official architect of the new St. Peters. After Rome and Florence, the third great artistic center of Italy was Venice In northern countries in Europe – Switzerland, Germany, northern France, and the Netherlands – the Renaissance did not happen with the same energy as it did in Italy Northern artists were turning from painting on panel to newly developed oil painting The North had a long tradition of painted miniatures, manuscript illuminations, stained glass, and tapestries – all decorative arts with a great deal of surface detail. The end of the High Renaissance was the death of Raphael in 1520