Converting Moles to Grams
Calculate the mass, in grams, of 0.433 mol of calcium nitrate.
What is the mass, in grams, of (a) 6.33 mol of NaHCO3 and (b) 3.0 × 10-5 mol of sulfuric acid?
Notes for Exam 2 ETHICS - Unethical studies o (monster study) Wendell Johnson Stuttered He wanted to know why people stuttered “stuttering is a learned behavior” Participants fluent orphans and demi-orphans Pre- measure measuring verbal fluency Independent variable he took 12 “fluent kids” 6 were told that they were stutterers 6 were “normal fluent speaker” Dependent Variable people were brought and they examined how well the kids spoke Results no significant results (no support to hypothesis) The people who were told that they were stutterers were less- confident speakers and sued o Stanley Milgram’s obedience to Authority study WWII “how could the German soldiers commit such horrible things in the Genocide” Hypothesis they did it because of authority “Will participants follow authority even if it means hurting someone”\ Experimenter authority (in a white lab coat) Participant teacher Confederate learner Learning phrase pair of words said Testing phase one words given, and the confederate said the other Outcome measure how many men will go all the way on the shock (%) Results 65% of men went all the way o “Does physical proximity with another person increase physiological arousal” Occurred in men’s bathroom IV confederate followed man and stood next to him while urinating Half picked urinal one away Half picked urinal two away Control no confederate DV how long it took for the man to pee - Ethical standard 8 o Institutional Approval- IRB (institutional review board) what researchers need to follow Ethically Must be more than 5 people One member must be a scientist One member must have an academic interest outside of science Member of the m=community less bias - Informed consent tell participants how long it’s going to take… o What they’re going to be doing o What’s going to be upsetting o That they can stop whenever they want o Contact information if there is unethical occurrences o That their information is confidential - We now have a cost-benefit analysis - APA: 5 general principles o 1. Beneficence and non-maleficence don’t cause suffering o 2. Fidelity and responsibility establish trust with their participants and take responsibility if they do something wrong o 3. Integrity strive to be accurate and honest o 4. Justice treat people equally o 5. Respect for others rights and dignity make sure the participants are old enough - Why do we use deception o Telling participants a false objective of the study allows for natural responses o You need to debrief them afterwards MEASUREMENTS - Observable measures smile, heartrate - Abstract psychological measures self-esteem, cognition, emotion, behavior - Conceptual definition dictionary definition - Operational definition questionnaire that measures construct (measures/manipulations/conceptual definition) - Measures in psychology is reducing a psychological, behavioral, or physiological phenomena into a number so we can do stats on the numbers (data to work with) - Categorical data categories (man vs woman) - Continuous data the number has meaning/ scale - Self-report measures: o Explicit filling out questionaries’ o Implicit gut reaction, unconscious properties o Explicit self-reports from judges Judges rate - Question types: o Open-ended you can write as much as you want o Forced-choice respond to given answers (Y vs N) o Likert Scale/Likert-type scale rate on a scale o Semantic differential on a scale, but there is one extreme on both sides (pain _ _ _ _ no pain) o Implicit self-report gut reaction IAT Study: white participants who took the IAT and experienced to white and black experimenter, who did they smile the most at, or get the closest to o Explicit self- reports form judges someone is asked to come in and judge someone’s personality, self-esteem, etc. Study (track boys aggression for 6 years (4 to 10 grade) Aggression went down over time - Ethics related to researcher o Reporting accurate results o Date fabrication making up data to support your hypothesis Example: Diederik Stapel