Atomic and Ionic Radii (Section)
Some ions do not have a corresponding neutral atom that has the same electron configuration. For each of the following ions, identify the neutral atom that has the same number of electrons and determine if this atom has the same electron configuration. If such an atom does not exist, explain why. (a) Cl-, (b) Sc3 + , (c) Fe2 + , (d) Zn2 + , (e) Sn4 + .
1965: Turning Point o Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965 Hart-Celler Act Abolished earlier quota system based on national origin and established new policy based on reuniting immigrant families During 1960s, flip in century of immigrants and changed to immigrants from Latin America and Asia A lot of these immigrants are children o Majority of these children are second generation (born in US, living with immigrant/undocumented parents) Incline of children with unauthorized, immigrant parents Undocumented immigrants going to smaller cities like Georgia and North Carolina Story of Immigrant Families o Varies by region, ethnicity, national origin, family o Socioeconomic circumstances, generation, and citizenship Immigrant Children o 25% of all children are immigrants 21% are first generation 4% are second generation Poverty o More likely to be poor than nonimmigrant children Children with immigrant parents o Less likely to be enrolled in pre-k o Less likely to graduate high school Why do immigrant children face such disadvantages o Changes in experience of immigrants o Most assimilate into poor, urban communities Manufacturing jobs occupied by earlier generations of immigrants are far fewer Low levels of education or education devalued Children of Undocumented Parents Far greater hardships o Parents lack access to many social safety net programs (Welfare, SNAP, Medicaid) o And other rights (driver's license, education) o Illegal immigrants NOT granted in-state tuition Little access to good paying jobs Deportation Increased from around 190,000 deportations in 2001 to close to 400,000 per year in 2011 In 2013, about 72,000 with U.S. born children were deported Transnational Families Families with members living in different nation states Aren't new, have been there since the Mayflower What has changed Who migrates to/from which countries "Divided by Borders" (Reading) Derby conducted 142 formal interviews with migrant parents, children, and caregivers Longitudinal interview with members of a group of 12 families over 4 years Ethnographic work in the mixteca of Mexico and central New Jersey Leave their Children Behind... Dangerous to cross the border Intended to make money and send it back home to children Life in the U.S. wasn't permanent Difficult to find jobs and ones they did find were dangerous, dirty, and unwanted, bad pay as well They worked long hours in order to make the investment worth their while Poor housing/low level "Migrant Paradox" Limited economic opportunities, but better than what was offered back home Stay longer Negative effects on families (family relations => sad, disillusionment) Intended expectations don't match reality Mass Incarceration --> incarcerating people in masses Rise in Incarceration 100/100,000 (in 1970) --------> 500/500,000 (today) Rates here today are seven times higher than other countries U.S. 25% of world's incarceration 11% of American men can expect to go to prison; 6.5% of men and women 2 million incarcerated right now in US 1 in 36 Americans either incarcerated, on probation, or parole Increased crime Not necessarily Causes of Mass Incarceration 1. Changes in Criminal Justice Policy a. War on drugs creates a void Access to social safety nets Are these bad effects justified Who is incarcerated Mostly blacks then Latinos, least amount in prison => whites Is Crime Equally Distributed Blacks and whites use drugs at equal rates High educated => more likely to rape Unfair stop/search policy and policing in poor neighborhoods Consequences of Policing 1 million black children currently have parents in jail Children with parents in jail are disproportionally poor Life chances are negatively affected Structure/society problems need to be fixed