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Use Lewis structures to explain why Br3- and I3- are

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780321809247 | Authors: Nivaldo J. Tro ISBN: 9780321809247 1

Solution for problem 100E Chapter 9

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition

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Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780321809247 | Authors: Nivaldo J. Tro

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition

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Problem 100E

Use Lewis structures to explain why Br3- and I3- are stable, while F3- is not.

Step-by-Step Solution:

Solution 100E Step 1 of 3 Bromine and Iodine belongs respectively to the Fourth and Fifth period of the periodic table, thus they can extend their octet. Fluorine belongs to the second period and it cannot extend its octet, thus, even if they have similar brute formula X , they 3e not stable in the same manner. Step 2 Bromine is present in fourth period of the periodic table. Thus, Br can fill the orbital d belonging 3 to the fourth energy level. When Bromine does that it is said that it undergoes an sp d hybridisation and the molecules in which Bromine assumes this configuration have a trigonal bipyramidal shape as the one indicated below For the sake of precision, the position of the atom A in figure is occupied by the atom of Bromine that has underwent sp d hybridization; the X positions (apical positions) are occupied by the two other atoms of Br that have not been hybridised. The three equatorial positions are occupied by the hybridised Bromine’s lone pairs. Step 2 of 3 Triiodide ion has this Lewis formula Since Iodine occupies the fifth period of the periodic table, it can fill the orbital d belonging to the fourth energy level. Thus its electronic configuration is and I can fill its 3 empty, 5d orbitals. When Iodine does that it is said that it undergoes an sp d hybridisation and the molecules in which Bromine assumes this configuration have a trigonal bipyramidal shape as the one indicated below Even in this case, as we have seen in Step 2 for tribromide ion, the position of the central atom in figure is occupied by the atom of Iodine that has underwent sp d hybridization; the X positions (apical positions) are occupied by the two other atoms of I that have not been hybridised. The three equatorial positions are occupied by the hybridised Iodine’s lone pairs.

Step 3 of 3

Chapter 9, Problem 100E is Solved
Textbook: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach
Edition: 3
Author: Nivaldo J. Tro
ISBN: 9780321809247

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Use Lewis structures to explain why Br3- and I3- are

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