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Solutions for Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780321809247 | Authors: Nivaldo J. Tro

ISBN9780321809247

Solutions for Chapter 14: Chemical Equilibrium

Solutions for Chapter 14

14.14.84) The equilibrium constant KP for the following reaction is 4.31 3 1024 at 375C: N2(g) 1 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) In a certain ex...

14.14.34) Explain why reactions with large equilibrium constants, such as the formation of rust (Fe2O3), may have very slow rates.

14.14.85) A quantity of 0.20 mole of carbon dioxide was heated to a certain temperature with an excess of graphite in a closed ...

14.1E) ?How does a developing fetus get oxygen in the womb?

14.14.86) When dissolved in water, glucose (corn sugar) and fructose (fruit sugar) exist in equilibrium as follows: fructose gl...

14.1SAQ) ?What is the correct expression for the equilibrium constant (Kc) for the reaction between carbon and hydrogen gas to...

14.14.35) Water is a very weak electrolyte that undergoes the following ionization (called autoionization): H2O(l) k1 k 1 H (aq...

14.2E) What is dynamic equilibrium? Why is it called dynamic?

14.2SAQ) ?The equilibrium constant for the reaction shown here is Kc = 1.0 x 103. A reaction mixture at equilibrium contains [...

14.3E) ?Give the general expression for the equilibrium constant of the following generic reaction:

14.3SAQ) ?Use the data below to find the equilibrium constant (Kc ) for the reaction a) 984 b) 26.8 c) 6.10 x 10-4 d) 2.44 x 10-3

14.14.87) At room temperature, solid iodine is in equilibrium with its vapor through sublimation and deposition (see p. 502). D...

14.4E) Does the value of the equilibrium constant depend on the initial concentrations of the reactants and products? Do the...

14.4SAQ) ?The reaction shown here has a Kp = 4.5 x 102 at 825 K. Find Kc for the reaction at this temperature. a) 0.098 b) 2.1...

14.5E) What happens to the value of the equilibrium constant for a reaction if the reaction equation is reversed? Multiplied...

14.14.36) Consider the following reaction, which takes place in a single elementary step: 2A B k1 k 1 1 A2B If the equilibrium ...

14.5SAQ) ?Consider the reaction between NO and Cl2 to form NOCl: A reaction mixture at a certain temperature initially contain...

14.6E) ?If two reactions sum to an overall reaction, and the equilibrium constants for the two reactions are K1 and K2, what...

14.14.88) At 1024C, the pressure of oxygen gas from the decomposition of copper(II) oxide (CuO) is 0.49 atm: 4CuO(s) 2Cu2O(s) 1...

14.7SAQ) ?Consider the reaction between iodine gas and chlorine gas to form iodine monochloride: \(\mathrm{I}_2(\mathrm{g})+\m...

14.6SAQ) ?For the reaction 2 A( g ) B( g ), the equilibrium constantis Kp = 0.76. A reaction mixture initially contains 2.0 at...

14.7E) ?Explain the difference between Kc and Kp. For a given reaction, how are the two constants related?

14.8E) ?What units should be used when expressing concentrations or partial pressures in the equilibrium constant? What are ...

14.14.37) Define reaction quotient. How does it differ from equilibrium constant?

14.8SAQ) ?Consider the reaction of A to form B: A reaction mixture at 298 K initially contains [A] = 0.50 M. What is the conce...

14.14.89) A mixture containing 3.9 moles of NO and 0.88 mole of CO2 was allowed to react in a flask at a certain temperature ac...

14.9SAQ) ?The decomposition of NH4HS is endothermic: Which change to an equilibrium mixture of this reaction results in the fo...

14.9E) Why are the concentrations of solids and liquids omitted from equilibrium expressions?

14.10SAQ) ?The solid XY decomposes into gaseous X and Y: If the reaction is carried out in a 22.4 L container, which initial am...

14.10E) Does the value of the equilibrium constant depend on the initial concentrations of the reactants and products? Do the...

14.14.38) Outline the steps for calculating the concentrations of reacting species in an equilibrium reaction.

14.11E) ?Explain how you might deduce the equilibrium constant for a reaction in which you know the initial concentrations of...

14.14.9) The equilibrium constant Kc for the reaction H2(g) 1 I2(g) 2HI(g) is 54.3 at 430C. At the start of the reaction there...

14.11SAQ) ?What is the effect of adding helium gas (at constant volume) to an equilibrium mixture of the reaction: a) The react...

14.12E) What is the definition of the reaction quotient ( Q) for a reaction? What does O measure?

14.12SAQ) ?The reaction X2 (g) ? 2 X(g) occurs in a closed reaction vessel at constant volume and temperature. Initially, the v...

14.13E) What is the value of O when each reactant and product is in its standard state? (See Section 6.9 for the definition o...

14.14E) ?In what direction will a reaction proceed for each condition: (a) Q < K; (b) Q > K; and (c) Q = K?

14.14.39) The equilibrium constant KP for the reaction 2SO2(g) 1 O2(g) 2SO3(g) is 5.60 3 104 at 350C. The initial pressures of ...

14.14.91) When heated, a gaseous compound A dissociates as follows: A(g) B(g) 1 C(g) In an experiment, A was heated at a certai...

14.15E) Many equilibrium calculations involve finding the equilibrium concentrations of reactants and products given their in...

14.43E) ?Consider the reaction: A solution is made containing an initial [Fe3+] of 1.0 x 10-3 M and an initial [SCN-] of 8.0 ...

14.48E) ?Consider the reaction: A reaction mixture contains 0.112 atm of H2, 0.055 atm of S2, and 0.445 atm of H2S. Is the re...

14.49E) ?Silver sulfate dissolves in water according to the reaction: A 1.5 L solution contains 6.55 g of dissolved silver su...

14.14.4) For the synthesis of ammonia N2(g) 1 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) the equilibrium constant Kc at 375C is 1.2. Starting with [H2]0 5...

14.50E) ?Nitrogen dioxide dimerizes according to the reaction: A 2.25 L container contains 0.055 mol of NO2 and 0.082 mol of ...

14.15.92) When a gas was heated under atmospheric conditions, its color deepened. Heating above 150C caused the color to fade, ...

14.52E) ?Consider the reaction and the associated equilibrium constant: Find the equilibrium concentrations of A, B, and C fo...

14.14.41) For the reaction H2(g) 1 CO2(g) H2O(g) 1 CO(g) at 700C, Kc 5 0.534. Calculate the number of moles of H2 that are pres...

14.53E) ?For the reaction, \(K_{\mathrm{c}}=0.513\) at 500 K. \(\mathrm{N}_2\mathrm{O}_4(\mathrm{g})\ \rightleftharpoons\ 2\m...

14.51E) ?Consider the reaction and the associated equilibrium constant: Find the equilibrium concentrations of A and B for ea...

14.54E) ?For the reaction, Kc = 255 at 1000 K. If a reaction mixture initially contains a CO concentration of 0.1500 M and a ...

14.55E) ?Consider the reaction: If a mixture of solid nickel(II) oxide and 0.20 M carbon monoxide comes to equilibrium at 150...

14.56E) ?Consider the reaction: If a reaction mixture initially contains 0.110 M CO and 0.110 M H2O, what will the equilibriu...

14.57E) ?Consider the reaction: If a solution initially contains 0.210 M HC2H3O2, what is the equilibrium concentration of H3...

14.14.42) At 1000 K, a sample of pure NO2 gas decomposes: 2NO2(g) 2NO(g) 1 O2(g) The equilibrium constant KP is 158. Analysis s...

14.14.93) In this chapter we learned that a catalyst has no effect on the position of an equilibrium because it speeds up both ...

14.104E) ?Consider the simple one-step reaction: Since the reaction occurs in a single step, the forward reaction has a rate o...

14.102E) ?A particular reaction has an equilibrium constant of Kp = 0.50. A reaction mixture is prepared in which all the reac...

14.101E) ?The reaction A(g) ? 2 B(g) has an equilibrium constant of Kc = 1.0 at a given temperature. If a reaction vessel cont...

14.14.43) The equilibrium constant Kc for the reaction H2(g) 1 Br2(g) 2HBr(g) is 2.18 3 106 at 730C. Starting with 3.20 moles o...

14.14.94) The equilibrium constant Kc for the following reaction is 1.2 at 375C. N2(g) 1 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) (a) What is the value o...

14.103E) ?Consider the reaction: Each of the entries in the following table represents equilibrium partial pressures of A and ...

14.100E) ?A reaction A(g) ? B(g) has an equilibrium constant of 1.0 x 10-4. For which of the initial reaction mixtures is the ...

14.99E) ?A sample of SO3 is introduced into an evacuated sealed container and heated to 600 K. The following equilibrium is e...

14.95E) ?Nitric oxide reacts with chlorine gas according to the reaction: A reaction mixture initially contains equal partial...

14.94E) ?Consider the reaction: A 2.75 L reaction vessel at 950 K initially contains 0.100 mol of SO2 and 0.100 mol of O2. Ca...

14.14.44) The dissociation of molecular iodine into iodine atoms is represented as I2(g) 2I(g) At 1000 K, the equilibrium const...

14.96E) ?At a given temperature, a system containing O2(g) and some oxides of nitrogen can be described by these reactions: A...

14.97E) ?A sample of pure NO2 is heated to 337 °C, at which temperature it partially dissociates according to the equation: A...

14.98E) ?When N2O5(g) is heated it dissociates into N2O3(g) and O2(g) according to the reaction: The N2O3(g) dissociates to g...

14.14.95) A sealed glass bulb contains a mixture of NO2 and N2O4 gases. Describe what happens to the following properties of th...

14.93E) ?Consider the reaction: a. A reaction mixture at 175 K initially contains 522 torr of NO and 421 torr of O2. At equil...

14.14.96) At 20C, the vapor pressure of water is 0.0231 atm. Calculate KP and Kc for the process H2O(l) H2O(g)

14.91E) ?Carbon monoxide and chlorine gas react to form phosgene: If a reaction mixture initially contains 215 torr of CO and...

14.14.45) The equilibrium constant Kc for the decomposition of phosgene, COCl2, is 4.63 3 1023 at 527C: COCl2(g) CO(g) 1 Cl2(g)...

14.92E) ?Solid carbon can react with gaseous water to form carbon monoxide gas and hydrogen gas. The equilibrium constant for...

14.90E) ?An equilibrium mixture contains N2O4, (P = 0.28 atm) and NO2 (P = 1.1 atm) at 350 K. The volume of the container is ...

14.89E) ?A sample of CaCO3(s) is introduced into a sealed container of volume 0.654 L and heated to 1000 K until equilibrium ...

14.88E) ?The equilibrium constant for the reaction SO2(g) + NO2(g) ? SO3(g) + NO(g) is 3.0. Find the amount of NO2 that must ...

14.14.97) Industrially, sodium metal is obtained by electrolyzing molten sodium chloride. The reaction at the cathode is Na1 1 ...

14.87E) ?At 70 K, CCl4 decomposes to carbon and chlorine. The Kp for the decomposition is 0.76. Find the starting pressure of...

14.86E) ?A reaction vessel at 27 °C contains a mixture of SO2 1P = 3.00 atm2 and O2 1P = 1.00 atm2. When a catalyst is added,...

14.85E) ?The system described by the reaction: CO(g) + Cl2(g) ? COCl2(g) is at equilibrium at a given temperature when PCO = ...

14.84E) ?Hydrogen can be extracted from natural gas according to the reaction: An 85.0 L reaction container initially contain...

14.14.46) Consider the following equilibrium process at 686C: CO2(g) 1 H2(g) CO(g) 1 H2O(g) The equilibrium concentrations of t...

14.83E) ?Ammonia can be synthesized according to the reaction: A 200.0 L reaction container initially contains 1.27 kg of N2 ...

14.14.98) In the gas phase, nitrogen dioxide is actually a mixture of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4). I...

14.82E) ?Consider the reaction: A reaction mixture initially containing 0.500 M H2S and 0.500 M SO2 contains 0.0011 M H2O at ...

14.81E) ?Consider the reaction: A reaction mixture at equilibrium at 175 K contains PH2 = 0.958 atm, PI2 = 0.877 atm, and PHI...

14.14.47) Consider the heterogeneous equilibrium process: C(s) 1 CO2(g) 2CO(g) At 700C, the total pressure of the system is fou...

14.80E) ?Consider the endothermic reaction: If you were trying to maximize the amount of C2H4I2 produced, which tactic might ...

14.79E) ?Consider the exothermic reaction: If you were trying to maximize the amount of C2H4Cl2 produced, which tactic might ...

14.78E) ?A system at equilibrium contains I2( g ) at a pressure of 0.21 atm and I( g ) at a pressure of 0.23 atm. The system ...

14.14.99) The equilibrium constant for the reaction A 1 2B 3C is 0.25 at a certain temperature. Which diagram shown here corres...

14.77E) ?At 650 K, the reaction MgCO3(s) ? MgO(s) + CO2(g) has Kp = 0.026 . A 10.0 L container at 650 K has 1.0 g of MgO(s) a...

14.76E) ?A mixture of water and graphite is heated to 600 K. When the system comes to equilibrium it contains 0.13 mol of H2 ...

14.72E) ?Coal can be used to generate hydrogen gas (a potential fuel) by the endothermic reaction: If this reaction mixture i...

14.14.48) The equilibrium constant Kc for the reaction H2(g) 1 CO2(g) H2O(g) 1 CO(g) is 4.2 at 1650C. Initially 0.80 mol H2 and...

14.73E) ?Carbon monoxide replaces oxygen in oxygenated hemoglobin according to the reaction: a. Use the reactions and associa...

14.74E) ?Nitrogen oxide is a pollutant in the lower atmosphere that irritates the eyes and lungs and leads to the formation o...

14.14.1) The equilibrium constant for the reaction 4X 1 Y 3Z is 33.3 at a certain temperature. Which diagram shown here corres...

14.75E) ?a. Calculate the total pressure at equilibrium when 4.45 g of CO2 is introduced into a 10.0 L container and heated t...

14.71E) ?Coal, which is primarily carbon, can be converted to natural gas, primarily CH4, by the exothermic reaction: Which d...

14.70E) ?This reaction is exothermic. Predict the effect (shift right, shift left, or no effect) of increasing and decreasing...

14.69E) ?This reaction is endothermic. Predict the effect (shift right, shift left, or no effect) of increasing and decreasin...

14.14.49) Explain Le Chteliers principle. How can this principle help us maximize the yields of reactions?

14.68E) ?Each reaction is allowed to come to equilibrium and then the volume is changed as indicated. Predict the effect (shi...

14.67E) ?Each reaction is allowed to come to equilibrium and then the volume is changed as indicated. Predict the effect (shi...

14.14.101) About 75 percent of hydrogen for industrial use is produced by the steam-reforming process. This process is carried o...

14.66E) ?Consider this reaction at equilibrium: Predict whether the reaction will shift left, shift right, or remain unchange...

14.64E) ?Consider this reaction at equilibrium: Predict whether the reaction will shift left, shift right, or remain unchange...

14.65E) ?Consider this reaction at equilibrium: Predict whether the reaction will shift left, shift right, or remain unchange...

14.14.5) Use Le Chteliers principle to explain why the equilibrium vapor pressure of a liquid increases with increasing temper...

14.63E) ?Consider this reaction at equilibrium: Predict whether the reaction will shift left, shift right, or remain unchange...

14.14.102) Photosynthesis can be represented by 6CO2(g) 1 6H2O(l) C6H12O6(s) 1 6O2(g) H 5 2801 kJ/mol Explain how the equilibriu...

14.62E) ?Consider the reaction: Find the equilibrium partial pressures of A and B for each value of K. Assume that the initia...

14.61E) ?Consider the reaction: Find the equilibrium concentrations of A, B, and C for each value of Kc. Assume that the init...

14.60E) ?Consider the reaction: A reaction mixture initially contains a CO partial pressure of 1344 torr and a H2O partial pr...

14.14.51) List four factors that can shift the position of an equilibrium. Only one of these factors can alter the value of the...

14.59E) ?Consider the reaction: A reaction mixture initially contains a Br2 partial pressure of 755 torr and a Cl2 partial pr...

14.58E) ?Consider the reaction: If a reaction mixture initially contains 0.175 M SO2Cl2, what is the equilibrium concentratio...

14.14.103) Consider the decomposition of ammonium chloride at a certain temperature: NH4Cl(s) NH3(g) 1 HCl(g) Calculate the equi...

14.47E) ?Consider the reaction: At a certain temperature, Kc = 8.5 x 10-3. A reaction mixture at this temperature containing ...

14.46E) ?Consider the reaction: A reaction mixture in a 5.19 L flask at a certain temperature contains 26.9 g CO and 2.34 g H...

14.45E) ?Consider the reaction: A reaction mixture in a 3.67 L flask at a certain temperature initially contains 0.763 g H2 a...

14.44E) ?Consider the reaction: A reaction mixture is made containing an initial [SO2Cl2] of 0.020 M. At equilibrium, [Cl2] =...

14.42E) ?For the reaction 2 A(g) B(g) + 2 C(g), a reaction vessel initially contains only A at a pressure of PA = 255 mmHg. A...

14.14.52) Does the addition of a catalyst have any effects on the position of an equilibrium?

14.41E) ?For the reaction A(g) ? 2 B(g), a reaction vessel initially contains only A at a pressure of PA = 1.32 atm. At equil...

14.14.104) At 25C, the equilibrium partial pressures of NO2 and N2O4 are 0.15 atm and 0.20 atm, respectively. If the volume is d...

14.40E) ?Consider the reaction: In a reaction at equilibrium, the partial pressure of SO2 is 137 torr and that of Cl2 is 285 ...

14.39E) ?Consider the reaction: In a reaction mixture at equilibrium, the partial pressure of NO is 108 torr and that of Br2 ...

14.38E) ?Consider the following reaction: Complete the table. Assume that all concentrations are equilibrium concentrations i...

14.35E) ?Consider the reaction: An equilibrium mixture of this reaction at a certain temperature has [CO] = 0.105 M, [H2] = 0...

14.14.53) Consider the following equilibrium system involving SO2, Cl2, and SO2Cl2 (sulfuryl dichloride): SO2(g) 1 Cl2(g) SO2Cl...

14.34E) ?Find and fix the mistake in the equilibrium expression.

14.14.105) In 1899 the German chemist Ludwig Mond developed a process for purifying nickel by converting it to the volatile nick...

14.37E) ?Consider the reaction: Complete the table. Assume that all concentrations are equilibrium concentrations in M.

14.30E) ?Use the following reactions and their equilibrium constants to predict the equilibrium constant for the reaction

14.36E) ?Consider the reaction: An equilibrium mixture of this reaction at a certain temperature has [NH3] = 0.278 M and [H2S...

14.14.54) Heating solid sodium bicarbonate in a closed vessel establishes the following equilibrium: 2NaHCO3(s) Na2CO3(s) 1 H2O...

14.33E) ?Write an equilibrium expression for each chemical equation involving one or more solid or liquid reactants or products.

14.32E) ?Calculate Kp for each reaction:

14.31E) ?Calculate Kc for each reaction:

14.29E) ?Consider the reactions and their respective equilibrium constants: Use these reactions and their equilibrium constan...

14.14.106) Consider the equilibrium reaction described in 14.23. A quantity of 2.50 g of PCl5 is placed in an evacuated 0.500-L ...

14.28E) ?This reaction has an equilibrium constant of Kp = 2.2 x 106 at 298 K. Calculate Kp for each reaction and predict whe...

14.14.55) Consider the following equilibrium systems: (a) A 2B H 5 20.0 kJ/mol (b) A 1 B C H 5 25.4 kJ/mol (c) A B H 5 0.0 kJ/m...

14.27E) ?This reaction has an equilibrium constant of Kp = 2.26 x 104 at 298 K. Calculate Kp for each reaction and predict wh...

14.25E) ?H2 and I2 are combined in a flask and allowed to react according to the reaction: Examine the figures (sequential in...

14.26E) ?A chemist trying to synthesize a particular compound attempts two different synthesis reactions. The equilibrium con...

14.14.56) What effect does an increase in pressure have on each of the following systems at equilibrium? The temperature is kep...

14.24E) ?Ethene (C2H4) can be halogenated by this reaction: where X2 can be Cl2 (green), Br2 (brown), or I2 (purple). Examine...

14.23E) ?When this reaction comes to equilibrium, will the concentrations of the reactants or products be greater? Does the a...

14.14.107) Consider the equilibrium system 3A B. Sketch the changes in the concentrations of A and B over time for the following...

14.22E) ?Find and fix each mistake in the equilibrium constant expressions.

14.21E) ?Write an expression for the equilibrium constant of each chemical equation.

14.20E) What is the effect of a temperature change on a chemical reaction initially at equilibrium? How does the effect diffe...

14.14.57) Consider the equilibrium 2I(g) I2(g) What would be the effect on the position of equilibrium of (a) increasing the to...

14.19E) What is the effect of a change in volume on a chemical reaction (that includes gaseous reactants or products) initial...

14.14.108) The vapor pressure of mercury is 0.0020 mmHg at 26C. (a) Calculate Kc and KP for the process Hg(l) Hg(g). (b) A chemi...

14.18E) What is the effect of a change in concentration of a reactant or product on a chemical reaction initially at equilibr...

14.17E) What happens to a chemical system at equilibrium when that equilibrium is disturbed?

14.16E) In equilibrium problems involving equilibrium constants that are small relative to the initial concentrations of reac...

14.14.109) At 25C, a mixture of NO2 and N2O4 gases are in equilibrium in a cylinder fitted with a movable piston. The concentrat...

14.14.58) PCl5(g) PCl3(g) 1 Cl2(g) H 5 92.5 kJ/mol Predict the direction of the shift in equilibrium when (a) the temperature i...

14.14.11) A student placed a few ice cubes in a drinking glass with water. A few minutes later she noticed that some of the ice...

14.14.59) Consider the reaction 2SO2(g) 1 O2(g) 2SO3(g) H 5 2198.2 kJ/mol Comment on the changes in the concentrations of SO2, ...

14.14.6) In the uncatalyzed reaction N2O4(g) 2NO2(g) the pressure of the gases at equilibrium are PN2O4 5 0.377 atm and PNO2 5...

14.14.111) Consider the potential energy diagrams for two types of reactions A B. In each case, answer the following questions f...

14.14.61) Consider the gas-phase reaction 2CO(g) 1 O2(g) 2CO2(g) Predict the shift in the equilibrium position when helium gas ...

14.14.112) The equilibrium constant Kc for the reaction 2NH3(g) N2(g) 1 3H2(g) is 0.83 at 375C. A 14.6-g sample of ammonia is pl...

14.14.113) A quantity of 1.0 mole of N2O4 was introduced into an evacuated vessel and allowed to attain equilibrium at a certain...

14.14.62) Consider the following equilibrium reaction in a closed container: CaCO3(s) CaO(s) 1 CO2(g) What will happen if (a) t...

14.14.114) The equilibrium constant (KP) for the reaction C(s) 1 CO2(g) 2CO(g) is 1.9 at 727C. What total pressure must be appli...

14.14.63) Consider the statement: The equilibrium constant of a reacting mixture of solid NH4Cl and gaseous NH3 and HCl is 0.31...

14.14.115) The forward and reverse rate constants for the reaction A(g) 1 B(g) C(g) are 3.6 3 1023 /M ? s and 8.7 3 1024 s21 , r...

14.14.64) Pure nitrosyl chloride (NOCl) gas was heated to 240C in a 1.00-L container. At equilibrium the total pressure was 1.0...

14.14.116) The equilibrium constant (KP) for the reaction PCl3(g) 1 Cl2(g) PCl5(g) is 2.93 at 127C. Initially there were 2.00 mo...

14.14.65) Determine the initial and equilibrium concentrations of HI if the initial concentrations of H2 and I2 are both 0.16 M...

14.14.117) Consider the reaction between NO2 and N2O4 in a closed container: N2O4(g) 2NO2(g) Initially, 1 mole of N2O4 is presen...

14.14.13) The equilibrium constant for the reaction A B is Kc 5 10 at a certain temperature. (1) Starting with only reactant A,...

14.14.66) Diagram (a) shows the reaction A2(g) 1 B2(g) 2AB(g) at equilibrium at a certain temperature, where the blue spheres r...

14.14.118) The dependence of the equilibrium constant of a reaction on temperature is given by the vant Hoff equation: ln K 5 2H...

14.14.67) The equilibrium constant (KP) for the formation of the air pollutant nitric oxide (NO) in an automobile engine at 530...

14.14.14) The following diagrams represent the equilibrium state for three different reactions of the type A 1 X AX (X 5 B, C, ...

14.14.15) The equilibrium constant (Kc) for the reaction 2HCl(g) H2(g) 1 Cl2(g) is 4.17 3 10234 at 25C. What is the equilibrium...

14.14.68) Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) undergoes thermal decomposition as follows: 2NaHCO3(s) Na2CO3(s) 1 CO2(g) 1 H2O(g) W...

14.14.119) (a) Use the vant Hoff equation in 14.118 to derive the following expression, which relates the equilibrium constants ...

14.14.69) Consider the following reaction at equilibrium: A(g) 2B(g) From the data shown here, calculate the equilibrium consta...

14.14.16) Consider the following equilibrium process at 700C: 2H2(g) 1 S2(g) 2H2S(g) Analysis shows that there are 2.50 moles o...

14.14.12) The KP for the reaction SO2Cl2(g) SO2(g) 1 Cl2(g) is 2.05 at 648 K. A sample of SO2Cl2 is placed in a container and h...

14.14.121) The boat form and chair form of cyclohexane (C6H12) interconverts as shown here: k1 Boat Chair k1 In this representat...

14.14.17) What is KP at 1273C for the reaction 2CO(g) 1 O2(g) 2CO2(g) if Kc is 2.24 3 1022 at the same temperature?

14.14.7) The equilibrium constant KP for the reaction 2H2O(g) 2H2(g) 1 O2(g) is 2 3 10242 at 25C. (a) What is Kc for the react...

14.14.18) The equilibrium constant KP for the reaction 2SO3(g) 2SO2(g) 1 O2(g) is 1.8 3 1025 at 350C. What is Kc for this react...

14.14.122) Consider the following reaction at a certain temperature A2 1 B2 2AB The mixing of 1 mole of A2 with 3 moles of B2 gi...

14.14.71) Consider the following reacting system: 2NO(g) 1 Cl2(g) 2NOCl(g) What combination of temperature and pressure (high o...

14.14.19) Consider the following reaction: N2(g) 1 O2(g) 2NO(g) If the equilibrium partial pressures of N2, O2, and NO are 0.15...

14.14.72) At a certain temperature and a total pressure of 1.2 atm, the partial pressures of an equilibrium mixture 2A(g) B(g) ...

14.14.123) Iodine is sparingly soluble in water but much more so in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The equilibrium constant, also ...

14.14.2) A reaction vessel contains NH3, N2, and H2 at equilibrium at a certain temperature. The equilibrium concentrations ar...

14.14.124) Consider the following equilibrium system: N2O4(g) 2NO2(g) H 5 58.0 kJ/mol (a) If the volume of the reacting system i...

14.14.73) The decomposition of ammonium hydrogen sulfide NH4HS(s) NH3(g) 1 H2S(g) is an endothermic process. A 6.1589-g sample ...

14.14.21) The equilibrium constant Kc for the reaction I2(g) 2I(g) is 3.8 3 1025 at 727C. Calculate Kc and KP for the equilibri...

14.14.74) Consider the reaction 2NO(g) 1 O2(g) 2NO2(g) At 430C, an equilibrium mixture consists of 0.020 mole of O2, 0.040 mole...

14.14.125) At 1200C, the equilibrium constant (Kc) for the reaction I2(g) 2I(g) is 2.59 3 1023 . Calculate the concentrations of...

14.14.22) At equilibrium, the pressure of the reacting mixture CaCO3(s) CaO(s) 1 CO2(g) is 0.105 atm at 350C. Calculate KP and ...

14.14.75) When heated, ammonium carbamate decomposes as follows: NH4CO2NH2(s) 2NH3(g) 1 CO2(g) At a certain temperature the equ...

14.14.126) Estimate the vapor pressure of water at 60C (see 14.119).

14.14.23) The equilibrium constant KP for the reaction PCl5(g) PCl3(g) 1 Cl2(g) is 1.05 at 250C. The reaction starts with a mix...

14.14.127) A compound XY2(s) decomposes to form X(g) and Y(g) according to the following chemical equation: XY2(s) X(g) 1 2Y(g) ...

14.14.76) A mixture of 0.47 mole of H2 and 3.59 moles of HCl is heated to 2800C. Calculate the equilibrium partial pressures of...

14.14.24) Ammonium carbamate, NH4CO2NH2, decomposes as follows: NH4CO2NH2(s) 2NH3(g) 1 CO2(g) Starting with only the solid, it ...

14.14.77) When heated at high temperatures, iodine vapor dissociates as follows: I2(g) 2I(g) In one experiment, a chemist finds...

14.14.25) Consider the following reaction at 1600C. Br2(g) 2Br(g) When 1.05 moles of Br2 are put in a 0.980-L flask, 1.20 perce...

14.14.128) Using the simplified chemical equilibrium given in the Chemistry in Action essay on p. 651, by how much would the con...

14.14.78) One mole of N2 and three moles of H2 are placed in a flask at 375C. Calculate the total pressure of the system at equ...

14.14.26) Pure phosgene gas (COCl2), 3.00 3 1022 mol, was placed in a 1.50-L container. It was heated to 800 K, and at equilibr...

14.14.129) The equilibrium constant (KP) for the reaction I2(g) 2I(g) is 1.8 3 104 at 872 K and 0.048 at 1173 K. From these data...

14.14.27) Consider the equilibrium 2NOBr(g) 2NO(g) 1 Br2(g) If nitrosyl bromide, NOBr, is 34 percent dissociated at 25C and the...

14.14.79) At 1130C the equilibrium constant (Kc) for the reaction 2H2S(g) 2H2(g) 1 S2(g) is 2.25 3 1024 . If [H2S] 5 4.84 3 102...

14.14.28) A 2.50-mole quantity of NOCl was initially in a 1.50-L reaction chamber at 400C. After equilibrium was established, i...

14.14.8) A quantity of 6.75 g of SO2Cl2 was placed in a 2.00-L flask. At 648 K, there is 0.0345 mole of SO2 present. Calculate...

14.14.29) The following equilibrium constants have been determined for hydrosulfuric acid at 25C: H2S(aq) H1 (aq) 1 HS2 (aq) K ...

14.14.3) The following equilibrium constants have been determined for oxalic acid at 25C: H2C2O4(aq) H1 (aq) 1 HC2O2 4 (aq) K ...

14.14.81) The formation of SO3 from SO2 and O2 is an intermediate step in the manufacture of sulfuric acid, and it is also resp...

14.14.31) The following equilibrium constants were determined at 1123 K: C(s) 1 CO2(g) 2CO(g) KP 5 1.3 3 1014 CO(g) 1 Cl2(g) CO...

14.14.82) Consider the dissociation of iodine: I2(g) 2I(g) A 1.00-g sample of I2 is heated to 1200C in a 500-mL flask. At equil...

14.14.32) At a certain temperature the following reactions have the constants shown: S(s) 1 O2(g) SO2(g) K c 5 4.2 3 1052 2S(s)...

14.14.83) Eggshells are composed mostly of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) formed by the reaction Ca21 (aq) 1 CO3 22 (aq) CaCO3(s) Th...

14.14.33) Based on rate constant considerations, explain why the equilibrium constant depends on temperature.

Summary of Chapter 14: Chemical Equilibrium

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321809247. Chapter 14: Chemical Equilibrium includes 233 full step-by-step solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, edition: 3. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Since 233 problems in chapter 14: Chemical Equilibrium have been answered, more than 1389814 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • Achiral

    An object that lacks chirality; an object that has no handedness

  • auxochrome

    When applying Woodward-Fieser rules, the groups attached to the chromophore.

  • becquerel

    The SI unit of radioactivity. It corresponds to one nuclear disintegration per second. (Section 21.4)

  • Benzyl group (C6H5CH2!)

    The group derived from toluene by removing a hydrogen from its methyl group.

  • cohesion.

    The intermolecular attraction between like molecules. (11.3)

  • condensation reaction.

    A reaction in which two smaller molecules combine to form a larger molecule. Water is invariably one of the products of such a reaction. (24.4)

  • desulfurization

    The conversion of a thioacetal into an alkane in the presence of Raney nickel.

  • heat

    The flow of energy from a body at higher temperature to one at lower temperature when they are placed in thermal contact. (Section 5.1)

  • internal energy

    The total energy possessed by a system. When a system undergoes a change, the change in internal energy, ?E, is defined as the heat, q, added to the system, plus the work, w, done on the system by its surroundings: ?E = q + w. (Section 5.2)

  • Kelvin scale

    The absolute temperature scale; the SI unit for temperature is the kelvin. Zero on the Kelvin scale corresponds to -273.15 °C. (Section 1.4)

  • liquid

    Matter that has a distinct volume but no specific shape. (Section 1.2)

  • mass defect

    The difference between the mass of a nucleus and the total masses of the individual nucleons that it contains. (Section 21.6)

  • molal boiling-point-elevation constant (Kb)

    A constant characteristic of a particular solvent that gives the increase in boiling point as a function of solution molality: ?Tb = Kbm. (Section 13.5)

  • optically active

    Possessing the ability to rotate the plane of polarized light. (Section 23.4)

  • Oxonium ion

    An ion in which oxygen bears a positive charge.

  • percent yield

    The ratio of the actual (experimental) yield of a product to its theoretical (calculated) yield, multiplied by 100. (Section 3.7)

  • Phenyl group

    A group derived by removing an H from benzene; abbreviated C6H5! or Ph!.

  • R,S System

    A set of rules for specifying absolute confi guration about a chiral center; also called the Cahn-Ingold-Prelog system

  • stereoisomers

    Compounds that have the same constitution but differ in the 3D arrangement of atoms.

  • Tautomers

    Constitutional isomers in equilibrium with each other that differ in the location of a hydrogen atom and a double bond relative to a heteroatom, most commonly O, N, or S.

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