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Solutions for Chapter 18: Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution

Organic Chemistry | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780077354725 | Authors: Janice Gorzynski Smith

Full solutions for Organic Chemistry | 3rd Edition

ISBN: 9780077354725

Organic Chemistry | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780077354725 | Authors: Janice Gorzynski Smith

Solutions for Chapter 18: Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution

Solutions for Chapter 18
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Textbook: Organic Chemistry
Edition: 3
Author: Janice Gorzynski Smith
ISBN: 9780077354725

Organic Chemistry was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780077354725. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Since 72 problems in chapter 18: Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution have been answered, more than 62206 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. Chapter 18: Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution includes 72 full step-by-step solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Organic Chemistry, edition: 3.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • 1,3-diaxial interaction

    Steric interactions that occur between axial substituents in a chair conformation.

  • antibonding molecular orbital.

    A molecular orbital that is of higher energy and lower stability than the atomic orbitals from which it was formed. (10.6)

  • aromatic

    A compound containing a planar ring of continuously overlapping p orbitals with 4n+2p electrons.

  • Carbohydrate

    A polyhydroxyaldehyde, a polyhydroxyketone, or a substance that gives these compounds on hydrolysis.

  • cellular respiration

    A process by which molecular oxygen is used to convert food into CO2, water, and energy.

  • Chair conformation

    The most stable nonplanar conformation of a cyclohexane ring; all bond angles are approximately 109.5°, and all bonds on adjacent carbons are staggered.

  • Dextrorotatory

    Refers to a substance that rotates the plane of polarized light to the right

  • electrophile

    A compound containing an electron-deficient atom that is capable of accepting a pair of electrons.

  • exergonic

    Any process with a negative DG.

  • Fischer esterifi cation

    The process of forming an ester by refl uxing a carboxylic acid and an alcohol in the presence of an acid catalyst, commonly H2SO4, ArSO3H, or HCl

  • Friedel-Crafts reaction

    An electrophilic aromatic substitution in which a hydrogen of an aromatic ring is replaced by an alkyl or acyl group.

  • Ground state

    The lowest energy state of a system.

  • hydration

    Solvation when the solvent is water. (Section 13.1)

  • nematic liquid crystalline phase

    A liquid crystal in which the molecules are aligned in the same general direction, along their long axes, but in which the ends of the molecules are not aligned. (Section 11.7)

  • Primary structure of proteins

    The sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain, read from the N-terminal amino acid to the C-terminal amino acid.

  • radiotracer

    A radioisotope that can be used to trace the path of an element in a chemical system. (Section 21.5)

  • rate-determining step

    The slowest elementary step in a reaction mechanism. (Section 14.6)

  • second order

    A reaction that has a rate equation in which the sum of all exponents is two.

  • structural proteins

    Fibrous proteins that are used for their structural rigidity. Examples include a-keratins found in hair, nails, skin, feathers, and wool.

  • Synstereoselective

    The addition of atoms or groups of atoms to the same face of a carbon-carbon double bond.

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