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Solutions for Chapter 16.12: Acid-Catalyzed Ring Opening of Epoxides
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
A radical reaction that achieves installation of a bromine atom at an allylic position.
The angles made by the lines joining the nuclei of the atoms in a molecule. (Section 9.1)
A measure of the degree to which the electrons are shared unequally between two atoms in a chemical bond. (Section 8.4)
A step in a chain reaction that involves destruction of reactive intermediates
A strong attractive force that exists between atoms in a molecule. (Section 8.1)
Atoms or groups on an atom that give a chiral center when one of the groups is replaced by another group. A pair of enantiomers results. The hydrogens of the CH2 group of ethanol, for example, are enantiotopic. Replacing one of them by deuterium gives (R)-1-deuteroethanol; replacing the other gives (S)-1-deuteroethanol. Enantiotopic groups have identical chemical shifts in achiral environments but different chemical shifts in chiral environments.
Any process with a positive DH (the system receives energy from the surroundings).
Measures chaos versus order and chaos is favorable
For cyclohexane, the steric interactions that occur between the flagpole hydrogen atoms in a boat conformation.
A characteristic group of atoms/bonds that possess a predictable chemical behavior.
molecular orbital (MO)
An allowed state for an electron in a molecule. According to molecular-orbital theory, a molecular orbital is entirely analogous to an atomic orbital, which is an allowed state for an electron in an atom. Most bonding molecular orbitals can be classified as s or p, depending on the disposition of electron density with respect to the internuclear axis. (Section 9.7)
In mass spectrometry, an odd molecular weight indicates an odd number of nitrogen atoms in the compound, while an even molecular weight indicates either an even number of nitrogen atoms or the absence of nitrogen.
The breaking of a molecule into two or more neutral fragments as a result of absorption of light. (Section 18.2)
A substance produced in a chemical reaction; it appears to the right of the arrow in a chemical equation. (Section 3.1)
The arrangement of polypeptide monomers into a noncovalently bonded aggregate.
A carbohydrate that is oxidized upon treatment with Tollens’ reagent, Fehling’s reagent, or Benedict’s reagent.
The difference in energy between a resonance hybrid and the most stable of its hypothetical contributing structures in which electrons are localized on particular atoms and in particular bonds.
A hydrocarbon that contains no p bonds.
The dissolving medium of a solution; it is normally the component of a solution present in the greater amount. (Section 4.1)
An addition reaction in which two groups are added to the same face of a p bond.