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Solutions for Chapter 4: Chemical Foundations: Elements, Atoms, and Ions

Full solutions for Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation | 7th Edition

ISBN: 9781439049402

Solutions for Chapter 4: Chemical Foundations: Elements, Atoms, and Ions

Solutions for Chapter 4
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Textbook: Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation
Edition: 7
Author: Steven S. Zumdahl, Donald J. DeCoste
ISBN: 9781439049402

Chapter 4: Chemical Foundations: Elements, Atoms, and Ions includes 109 full step-by-step solutions. Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9781439049402. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation, edition: 7. Since 109 problems in chapter 4: Chemical Foundations: Elements, Atoms, and Ions have been answered, more than 24045 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • Absolute confi guration

    Which of the two possible isomers an enantiomer is (i.e., whether it is the right- or left-handed isomer).

  • Anion

    An atom or group of atoms bearing a negative charge.

  • bent

    A type of geometry resulting from an sp3-hybridized atom that has two lone pairs. For example, the oxygen atom in H2O.

  • chemical equilibrium

    A state of dynamic balance in which the rate of formation of the products of a reaction from the reactants equals the rate of formation of the reactants from the products; at equilibrium the concentrations of the reactants and products remain constant. (Section 4.1;Chapter 15: Introduction)

  • diagonal relationship.

    Similarities between pairs of elements in different groups and periods of the periodic table. (8.6)

  • Dielectric constant

    A measure of a solvent’s ability to insulate opposite charges from one another

  • enantiomeric excess

    For a mixture containing two enantiomers, the difference between the percent concentration of the major enantiomer and the percent concentration of its mirror image.

  • endothermic

    Any process with a positive DH (the system receives energy from the surroundings).

  • enthalpy of formation

    The enthalpy change that accompanies the formation of a substance from the most stable forms of its component elements. (Section 5.7)

  • hydrolysis

    A reaction in which bonds are cleaved by treatment with water.

  • internal alkyne

    A compound with the structure R!C#C!R, where each R group is not a hydrogen atom.

  • metal complex

    An assembly of a metal ion and the Lewis bases bonded to it. (Section 23.2)

  • molecular compound

    A compound that consists of molecules. (Section 2.6)

  • nucleic acids

    Polymers of high molecular weight that carry genetic information and control protein synthesis. (Section 24.10)

  • Optical purity

    The specifi c rotation of a mixture of enantiomers divided by the specifi c rotation of the enantiomerically pure substance (expressed as a percent). Optical purity is numerically equal to enantiomeric excess, but experimentally determined.

  • optically active

    A compound that rotates plane-polarized light.

  • racemic mixture

    A solution containing equal amounts of both enantiomers.

  • racemic mixture

    A mixture of equal amounts of the dextrorotatory and levorotatory forms of a chiral molecule. A racemic mixture will not rotate the plane of polarized light. (Section 23.4)

  • Ring current

    An applied magnetic fi eld causes the p electrons of an aromatic ring to circulate, giving rise to the so-called ring current and an associated magnetic fi eld that opposes the applied fi eld in the middle of the ring but reinforces the applied fi eld on the outside of the ring.

  • spectrum

    The distribution among various wavelengths of the radiant energy emitted or absorbed by an object. (Section 6.3)

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