 1.2.8 BSC: Consider the Source. determine whether the given source has the pot...
 1.2.1BSC: Statistical Significance versus Practical Significance What is the ...
 1.2.2BSC: Source of Data In conducting a statistical study, why is it importa...
 1.2.3BSC: Voluntary Response Sample What is a voluntary response sample, and ...
 1.2.4BSC: Correlation and Causation What is meant by the statement that “corr...
 1.2.5BSC: Consider the Source. determine whether the given source has the pot...
 1.2.6BSC: Consider the Source. ?determine whether the given source has the po...
 1.2.7BSC: Consider the Source. ?determine whether the given source has the po...
 1.2.8BSC: BSC Consider the Source. ?determine whether the given source has th...
 1.2.9BSC: Sampling Method. determine whether the sampling method appears to b...
 1.2.10BSC: Sampling Method. determine whether the sampling method appears to b...
 1.2.11BSC: Sampling Method. determine whether the sampling method appears to b...
 1.2.12BSC: Sampling Method. determine whether the sampling method appears to b...
 1.2.18BSC: ?Testing Claims About Proportions. In Exercises 7–18, test the give...
 1.2.19BSC: ?In Exercises 17–20, refer to the data in the table below. (The pul...
 1.2.20BSC: ?In Exercises 17–20, refer to the data in the table below. (The pul...
 1.2.21BSC: ?In Exercises 21–24, refer to the data in the table below. The IQ s...
 1.2.22BSC: ?In Exercises 21–24, refer to the data in the table below. The IQ s...
 1.2.23BSC: ?In Exercises 21–24, refer to the data in the table below. The IQ s...
 1.2.24BSC: ?In Exercises 21–24, refer to the data in the table below. The IQ s...
 1.2.25BSC: What’s Wrong? i ? dentify what is wrong. Potatoes? In a poll sponso...
 1.2.30BSC: Percentages. ?answer the given questions, which are related to perc...
 1.2.31BSC: Percentages. answer the given questions, which are related to perce...
 1.2.26BSC: What’s Wrong? identify what is wrong.College Major In a USA Today o...
 1.2.32BSC: Percentages. answer the given questions, which are related to perce...
 1.2.27BSC: What’s Wrong? identify what is wrong.Cell Phones and Pirates In rec...
 1.2.33BSC: Percentages. answer the given questions, which are related to perce...
 1.2.34BSC: Percentages. ?answer the given questions, which are related to perc...
 1.2.28BSC: What’s Wrong? identify what is wrong.Storks and Babies In the years...
 1.2.35BSC: Percentages. ?answer the given questions, which are related to perc...
 1.2.29BSC: Percentages. answer the given questions, which are related to perce...
 1.2.14BSC: Statistical Significance and Practical Significance. ?determine whe...
 1.2.15BSC: Statistical Significance and Practical Significance. determine whet...
 1.2.13BSC: Statistical Significance and Practical Significance. ?determine whe...
 1.2.16BSC: Statistical Significance and Practical Significance. determine whet...
 1.2.36BSC: Percentages. ?answer the given questions, which are related to perc...
 1.2.37BSC: ATV Accidents? The Associated Press provided an article with a head...
 1.2.38BSC: Falsifying Data A researcher at the SloanKettering Cancer Research...
 1.2.39BSC: What's Wrong with This Picture? The Newport Chronicle ran a survey ...
 1.2.17BSC: ?Testing Claims About Proportions. In Exercises 7–18, test the give...
Solutions for Chapter 1.2: Statistical and Critical Thinking
Full solutions for Elementary Statistics  12th Edition
ISBN: 9780321836960
Solutions for Chapter 1.2: Statistical and Critical Thinking
Get Full SolutionsSummary of Chapter 1.2: Statistical and Critical Thinking
Since 40 problems in chapter 1.2: Statistical and Critical Thinking have been answered, more than 575048 students have viewed full stepbystep solutions from this chapter. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Elementary Statistics, edition: 12. Elementary Statistics was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321836960. Chapter 1.2: Statistical and Critical Thinking includes 40 full stepbystep solutions. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions.

2 k p  factorial experiment
A fractional factorial experiment with k factors tested in a 2 ? p fraction with all factors tested at only two levels (settings) each

Arithmetic mean
The arithmetic mean of a set of numbers x1 , x2 ,…, xn is their sum divided by the number of observations, or ( / )1 1 n xi t n ? = . The arithmetic mean is usually denoted by x , and is often called the average

Average
See Arithmetic mean.

Block
In experimental design, a group of experimental units or material that is relatively homogeneous. The purpose of dividing experimental units into blocks is to produce an experimental design wherein variability within blocks is smaller than variability between blocks. This allows the factors of interest to be compared in an environment that has less variability than in an unblocked experiment.

Box plot (or box and whisker plot)
A graphical display of data in which the box contains the middle 50% of the data (the interquartile range) with the median dividing it, and the whiskers extend to the smallest and largest values (or some deined lower and upper limits).

C chart
An attribute control chart that plots the total number of defects per unit in a subgroup. Similar to a defectsperunit or U chart.

Central tendency
The tendency of data to cluster around some value. Central tendency is usually expressed by a measure of location such as the mean, median, or mode.

Chance cause
The portion of the variability in a set of observations that is due to only random forces and which cannot be traced to speciic sources, such as operators, materials, or equipment. Also called a common cause.

Completely randomized design (or experiment)
A type of experimental design in which the treatments or design factors are assigned to the experimental units in a random manner. In designed experiments, a completely randomized design results from running all of the treatment combinations in random order.

Conditional mean
The mean of the conditional probability distribution of a random variable.

Conditional probability density function
The probability density function of the conditional probability distribution of a continuous random variable.

Consistent estimator
An estimator that converges in probability to the true value of the estimated parameter as the sample size increases.

Correlation coeficient
A dimensionless measure of the linear association between two variables, usually lying in the interval from ?1 to +1, with zero indicating the absence of correlation (but not necessarily the independence of the two variables).

Covariance
A measure of association between two random variables obtained as the expected value of the product of the two random variables around their means; that is, Cov(X Y, ) [( )( )] =? ? E X Y ? ? X Y .

Design matrix
A matrix that provides the tests that are to be conducted in an experiment.

Erlang random variable
A continuous random variable that is the sum of a ixed number of independent, exponential random variables.

F distribution.
The distribution of the random variable deined as the ratio of two independent chisquare random variables, each divided by its number of degrees of freedom.

Factorial experiment
A type of experimental design in which every level of one factor is tested in combination with every level of another factor. In general, in a factorial experiment, all possible combinations of factor levels are tested.

Fisher’s least signiicant difference (LSD) method
A series of pairwise hypothesis tests of treatment means in an experiment to determine which means differ.

Hat matrix.
In multiple regression, the matrix H XXX X = ( ) ? ? 1 . This a projection matrix that maps the vector of observed response values into a vector of itted values by yˆ = = X X X X y Hy ( ) ? ? ?1 .