In a real turbine, the entropy of the steam will increase somewhat. How will this affect the percentages of liquid and gas at point 4 in the cycle? How will the efficiency be affected?
Reconstruction Lincoln believed reconstruction should be as painless and as easy as possible 10 percent plan- if 10 percent of voters in each state wanted to be readmitted to the union (southern states) then they would be congress wanted wade-davis bill- 50 percent of voters wanted to be- also wanted to take iron clad oath-tricked into participating in the civil war- lincoln vetoed this Lincoln= assassinated, Andrew Johnson becomes prez Johnson= democrat, southern senator from Tennessee-only southern senator to remain in congress during civil war-remained loyal Most of congress=republican. Johnson felt that wealthy southerners caused most of civil war bc majority slave owners. Many thought he would be harsh on southerners Would enforce confiscation act- that US govt could confiscate property of those who seceded from union=wealthy slave owners would lose property 1865- congress passed Freedman’s Bureau- help those who had recently been freed after being enslaved. Slaves had limited skill set, little education. Bridge between slavery and freedom. Help relocate families, provide basic services Johnson vetoes the Freedman’s Bureau. Argues that nothing in the constitution does not allow the federal govt to have this much power. Veto is ultimately overridden, but FB was not ultimately successful bc was under funded and under staffed 1866-Civil Rights Act-provided civil equality among slaves and rest of population-slaves have all basic rights. Johnson vetoes this as well-says fed govt does not have all this power, congress overrides this veto as well. Johnson wanted individual states to th decide, J says this violates the 10 amendment Congress proposes 14 amendment-specifies that all persons born in the US are citizens of the country as well as the state in which they reside. Makes all former slaves citizens. By end of civil war, almost all that were enslaved were born in US. Entitled to all rights as citizens 15 amendment- former slaves over age of 21 would have the ability to vote th th states had to vote in favor of 14 and 15 amendment Johnson= politically powerless. Brought up on articles of impeachment. Tenure of office act= congress had passed this law saying that not only did the prez have to seek advice and consent of congress for passing laws and removing/adding people from office. J removed secretary of war without approval of congress (Stanton). Stanton disagreed w J, believed south should be punished. Congress started process of impeachment against J. Indited on charges= remains prez, but virtually powerless. Congress follows Stanton’s ideas, orders federal troops remain in the south until 14 and 15 amendments are passed. Demonstrates division between white house and congress. Majority of population was black in southern states. New voters (slaves) and vote new candidates into office. Many republicans and African Americans were elected. Many blacks in office had been freed previous to end of civil war. Beginning of KKK. Purpose it to terrorize free black voters. 752 (mostly black) people on the way to the polls were killed by KKK and other white terrorist groups. Mississippi and other states initiated black codes. Ex include literacy tests. Many poor whites lost ability to vote too bc of this. Poll taxes were also established. Most former slaves did not have money for this. Taxes collected in spring, people in agriculture had the least amount of money in spring. This was done purposefully. Monday Wednesday Industrialization= rise of big business. Firms that had employed at most a couple of hundred people now had 500+, sometimes over 1,000 people Economies of scale= firms are looking for efficiency. Bigger is better. To be larger, as an enterprise, does not cost that much more and in turn is more efficient and more profitable Capital formation changes…fixed capital vs working capital Fixed capital is the money or investment that businesses use as heavy objects, i.e. builidings, machinery, factories Working capital is the money that is needed for day to day working operations. i.e. ulitiies, salary to pay employees. Used to be the most difficult for businesses to acquire Did not have large fixed capital costs in a pre-industrial age Merger movement= firms came together, more efficient by creating larger units. Some resulting in monopolies. 2 Creation of a national stock market. Every city used to have a stock market. However, w the rise of big business, firms needed more money than they could get from local investors…needed to be national (eventually international). Stock market in new York city Technology invented enabled the creation of a national stock market, i.e. telegraph…instant communication. Railroad companies, at&t, etc revolutionized business Horizontal integration= when one firm buys or merges with other firms that do the exact same thing as them. Ex. Rockefellor owns all the oil companies. The government came to rockefellor twice to ask for a loan. Vertical integration= buying up all raw materials needed in order to produce a product in order to save money and become more efficient Andrew Carnegie= arrives as a skilled person in sewing, learned how a telegraph worked. Began to understand how goods move. Decides that the most money can be made from steel, but in order for that to work, one must not only manufacture steel, but buy out the mines for the raw ingredients. He buys railroads too. Buys raw materials vertically Rockefellor and Carnegie began to employ both vertical and horizontal strategies Carnegie= Gospel of Wealth=invest money back into society. Invest money into long term projects in order to aid society. Built local public libraries, i.e. ordinary people could go to the libraries and improve themselves and gain more knowledge. Carnegie argued that the wealthy should invest their money into education Rise of American middle class Knights of labor=first national labor organization=emerged as a response to difficult working conditions. People bargaining for higher wages can easily be fired AFL= represents skilled workers. Becomes successful in protecting workers and providing them better wages. Great friction between labor and management, but AFL has a good formula bc skilled workers can not be easily replaced. Creates opportunity in working class. Robber Barrons= BAD Labor abuses Titans of Industry (Captains)=GOOD Jobs Carnegie Hall 3 New York Public Library (public institutions) 9.21.15. Spanish-American War By the end of 19 century, Spanish empire was in decline Cuba was used by Spain for its natural resources (sugar and tobacco) Wyler- Spanish general. He decided to create reconcentration camps. 200,000 cubans died bc conditions were so bad. People believed the US should begin to acquire territories abroad in order to expand their wealth and military Alfred Thayer Mahan-published a book called The Influence of Sea Power in History. Argued that great nations had great navies. Prez at time, McKinley, was reserved when it came to the issue of expanding the nation. Was not in favor of going to war. Although he wanted to focus on domestic affairs, people were demanding that something be done. Initially took diplomatic course. Spain and US had talks of Spain being less restrictive on Cuba. Spain did not want to buckle to outside pressure. US sent naval ships to Cuba in order to show American strength and interest. The U.S.S. Maine exploded in the harbor near Havana. Killed American crew. People claimed that the ship had been attacked by the Spanish. It is unclear what happened, but it is unlikely that the Spanish attacked. Possibilities include striking an underwater mine, internal explosion caused by steam and coal bc boiler went off and so did all of the artillery. 4 Theodore Roosevelt won gov of NY. McKinley asked Roosevelt to be vice president, and Roosevelt was hesitant, but took it anyway bc the president had asked him to do so. 9.23.15. An Expanding Empire America was having a debate regarding whether or not to colonize and imperialize the Philipenes Acquistion of Hawaii and Phillippenes was helpful for steam ship ports for ships to stop and refuel Filipino-American War, 1899-1902 William Howard Taft becomes first colonial governor of the Phillippenes America annexed Puerto Rico McKinley was assassinated, Roosevelt becomes president. He believed in growing imperial power, but was not content with just finishing what others had started. He wanted to create an interoceanic canal 5