In the low-temperature limit (kT ≪ ϵ), each term in the rotational partition function (equation is much smaller than the one before. Since the first term is independent of T, cut off the sum after the second term and compute the average energy and the heat capacity in this approximation. Keep only the largest T-dependent term at each stage of the calculation. Is your result consistent with the third law of thermodynamics? Sketch the behaviour of the heat capacity at all temperatures, interpolating between the high-temperature and low-temperature expressions.
World War II: Reaffirming the American Way of Life I: From Depression to War II: Crusade for Comfort III: The Enemy IV: The Consequences Terms Axis Powers Ballantine Ale Appeasement John Hersey Neutrality Office of War Information Phillip K. Wrigley War Relocation Authority “Rosie the Riveter” “Unconditional Surrender” Nash Kelvinator Refrigerators Casablanca Conference Hoover Vacuums “Warfare State” Pond’s Face Cream Central theme: America didn’t fully recover from the Great Depression until World War II o World War II solved the Great Depression Thesis: If the Great Depression challenged America’s way of life, then World War II re-enforced America’s way of life. I: From Depression to War World War II (good war) = war for liberation o Conflict that saved Europe from Germany and Italy o Saved Pacific (east Asia) A lot of truth to images of wiping citizen welcoming America troops Problems: o Jews in Europe (concentration camps) American knew (government) and did nothing about it o Hitler and expansion in Europe Everybody knew that Hitler was making a military expansion Published in newspapers and magazines America endorsed appeasement policies and later endorsed policy of neutrality 1930’s, America wasn’t all that key to liberate anybody from bad people Reluctant liberator = America World War II = millions of Americans embraced the war as an escape from the Great Depression o Used to solve the deep emotional feelings Connects between World War II and the Great Depression o The war revived for American men a sense of effectiveness o Revival of prosperity Jobs appearing Revival of consumerism o World War II sense of common earness, people came together Depression isolated people II: Crusade for Comfort (World War II) Mobilization for war (domestic consequences) o Massive mobilization of American people and resources o American government poor out war orders (steel, oil, rubber, aluminum) o Congress begins deficient spending o Employment skyrockets o Consumer buying goes back up o Who is going to take these jobs Men are drafted in war Women poured into job force (ex. Rosie the Riveter) o Fact and appeal for more women to come to work force African Americans were able to get jobs also o Many migrated North to get the factory jobs (African American women) Phillip K. Wrigley o Wrigley’s chewing gum (Chicago) o Shrewd business men o Set up high level meetings (army and marine core) Convinced them that their product would be good for the war o Chewing gum would quench the soldiers thirst and keep teeth clean o Didn’t have to pay Good for advertisement campaign Soldiers would have created a habit New attraction to material goods (people at home) o Rekindled old consumer traditions o Ads poured at everywhere, nearly all of them were linked to the war Nash Kelvinator Refrigerators Picture of a American woman coming from work saying “I know you’ll come back to me, same blue dress, same silver bracelet, except on thing, a new Kelvinator Refrigerator” Hoover Vacuums Pond’s face cream Ballantine Ale John Hersey o Journalist in field o Went out with marine core o Wrote stories and reports o Got famous o Went out in Pacific o Asked guys “what does the war mean to you” Response (not about democracy, fascism, American government) blueberry pie, movies, whiskey, home (most) Fought for consumer life Crusade for comfort o Fighting for good life (consumerism) III: The Enemy Thought mobilizing Roosevelt formed out advertising agencies o Office of War Information Funded by government Fine up support of American people of war After Pearl Harbor, Americans were angry and wanted to go to war Keep angry enthusiasm alive Rushing along hatred of the enemy A lot of the American population were of German ethnicity German people were good people Evil Nazi’s party took over German people Pacific o Far east (Pearl Harbor) o To encourage hatred of Japanese was image of “Murdering Jap” o Editorial in Time Magazine “How to tell your friend from the Japs” Chinese are Americans allies, Japanese were enemies Interment of Japanese – Americans by the were relocated (1943) o Rounded up and put into camps (California and mountain states) o Put there during war o Didn’t happen to Germans Unconditional surrender o Government wanted surrender from enemies o Casablanca Conference o Official U.S. policy to end war IV: The Consequences Reformat of consumer culture Policy of unconditional surrender bled over into Cold War Warfare state o Created World War II o Economic prosperity tied to production of war gods will also bleed over into Cold War The Cold War: The Paranoid Style at Home and Abroad I: The Nuclear Age II: Ideology of Confrontation III: Permanent War Psychology IV: Anti-Communism Terms Yalta Dwight D. Eisenhower Iron Curtain John Foster Dulles Truman Doctrine CIA Berlin Blockade Pentagon Containment Korean Conflict Marshall Plan HUAC NATO Alger Hiss Brinksmanship The Rosenberg’s Joseph McCarthy Cold War o Dominated American life o Soviet Union vs. America I: The Nuclear Age Powerful nations: o America o Soviet Union o Relationship began to move forward at the end of war Conflicts, question of disperse of power o Yalta Conference (1945) In south of Soviet Union Talk about issues Franklin Roosevelt was a few weeks of dying (sick man) Agreements: o Soviet Union agreed to move into war with Pacific against Japan o U.S. agreed to establish and go along with a sphere of influence in eastern Europe Soviet Union became paranoid of being invaded in Europe (Napoleon and Hitler), not allowed again Government not hostile to Soviet Union o Everybody agreed there would be free elections in Europe (democratic) After surrender of Germany, etc. was a suspicion between America and English vs. Soviet Union o Became hostility In eastern Europe, Soviet army (red army) in eastern Europe and Stalin refused to remove them Rigged elections, communist governments of Soviet Union o U.S. didn’t like these events 1946, The Iron Curtain speech by Churchill o Developing situation of Soviet Union and ideology situation in Europe o East (Soviet army), west (democratic) o Stuck in people’s imagination 1947, Truman Doctrine/Administration o Ex-senator of Missouri o President in 1945 after Franklin Roosevelt o Anti-Soviet tragedy o Whenever Soviet aggression/communism appeared U.S. would be there to stop it Ex. Greece, communism to bring down government U.S. provided military support to stop it 1948, Berlin Blockade o Big conflict between U.S. and Soviet Union o Germany divided West- government sympathic to west countries, ally East- government influenced by Soviet Union communist o Middle of east Germany International city, all allies had access Soviet Union tested the will of U.S. and English and cut off access U.S. saw it as a challenge, into city by air Didn’t get attacked by Soviet Union Soviet Union backed down o End of Berlin Blockade o Clear tension of Soviet Union and western countries 1949, Soviet Union exploded test wise, a nuclear bomb o Program of nuclear weapons o Before U.S. was the only one’s with nuclear technology o Tension of Cold War was hyped o Nuclear bombs can cause genetic mutation, radiation o Hydrant bomb, atomic bomb o Cold War became very serious II: Ideology of Confrontation 1940-50’s, international situation (new ideology) U.S. ideology of confrontation o American way of life needs to be protected Challenged by crash of stock market, Great Depression o Defended by World War II (regained) cant be lost again Dimensions of ideology o Tough minded realism Meant failed to stand up to Hitler Soviet Union/ communist built expansion Stand up to Soviet Union before things get worse Code word: Strength Containment o Idea wherever communism threated to expand, U.S. would contain it (aggression and expansion) Ex. Marshall Plan (economic) George Marshall, chief of staff, adviser to Franklin Roosevelt, secretary of state As sectary of state, address situation in Europe (western were horrible), people starving to death Poverty, unemployment is seed bed for communist to solve solutions o 12 billion dollars, U.S. pours economies assistance to stop communist expansion NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) o Military alliance brought together (English, French, south Soviet Union) o Attack on one = attack on all and they would come to defense o Anti-Soviet defense alliance Brinksmanship o U.S had to be prepared to go the very brink of nuclear war to stop Soviet Union o John Foster Dulles President (republican) “If U.S. is scared to go tot the brink of war, we are lost” III: Permanent War Psychology Cold War important because it was a new kind of war o No actual military contact o War of threats, nerves, and limited engagement o Result – permanent war psychology (seeps in U.S. And Soviet Union) o Ex, government institutes, CIA Started in ’20-30’s as spy agency Intelligence gathering Cold War e=becomes insured in political society 1 director of CIA, Allen Dulles Bring down hostility o Ex. Iran (1953) Put up money for military Sha of Iran became a big ally, sent billions of money and military supply o Ex. Pentagon (1947) Centralized command Outside Washington D.C. Army, navy, etc. 1940-50’s, huge defense establishment o U.S. building enormous weapon systems (nuclear) o Enormous defense communities built weapons for billions of dollars from government Bowing Great Douglas Permanent war economy o Employing people, revival of consumerism Korean Conflict o Eastern edge o End of war, divided North – communist South- democratic o 1950’s, north invades south to unify north and south to communism o U.S. saw it as a challenth o 1953, re-establish 38 parallel line, nothing id settled, north and south go back to their own ways IV: Anti-Communist Concern of communist in U.S o HUAC (house un-American committee) o Very active in 1950’s Ex. Alger Hiss case Member of communist party Brought to trail Accused of being a spy Convicted of lying to jury Was a spy Ex. The Rosenberg’s Soviet nuclear spies Brought to trail Convicted, executed for treason Julius was guilty, Ethel wasn’t Joseph McCarthy (senator) Accused everybody of being communist Especially in government Accused U.S. army Best example