- 18.18.13: Many carboxylic acids are much better known by their common names t...
- 18.18.14: Give an acceptable IUPAC name for each of the following: (a) CH3(CH...
- 18.18.15: Rank the compounds in each of the following groups in order of decr...
- 18.18.16: Identify the more acidic compound in each of the following pairs: (...
- 18.18.17: Propose methods for preparing butanoic acid from each of the follow...
- 18.18.18: It is sometimes necessary to prepare isotopically labeled samples o...
- 18.18.19: Give the product of the reaction of pentanoic acid with each of the...
- 18.18.20: Show how butanoic acid may be converted to each of the following co...
- 18.18.21: Each of the following reactions has been reported in the chemical l...
- 18.18.22: The compound shown was subjected to the following series of reactio...
- 18.18.23: Show by a series of equations how you could synthesize each of the ...
- 18.18.24: (a) Which stereoisomer of 4-hydroxycyclohexanecarboxylic acid (cis ...
- 18.18.25: When compound A is heated, two isomeric products are formed. What a...
- 18.18.26: A certain carboxylic acid (C14H26O2), which can be isolated from wh...
- 18.18.27: When levulinic acid (CH3CCH2CH2CO2H) O X was hydrogenated at high p...
- 18.18.28: On standing in dilute aqueous acid, compound A is smoothly converte...
- 18.18.29: Suggest reaction conditions suitable for the preparation of compoun...
- 18.18.30: In the presence of the enzyme aconitase, the double bond of aconiti...
- 18.18.31: The 1 H NMR spectra of formic acid (HCO2H), maleic acid (cis-HO2CCH...
- 18.18.32: Compounds A and B are isomers having the molecular formula C4H8O3. ...
- 18.18.33: Compounds A and B are carboxylic acids. Identify each one on the ba...
- 18.18.34: The dihydroxy acid shown was prepared as a single enantiomer and un...
- 18.18.35: The product of the following reaction has the constitution shown. N...
- 18.18.36: What is the structure of the lactone formed by iodolactonization of...
- 18.18.37: Assume that the following reaction proceeds through a bridged selen...
- 18.18.38: What is compound X?
Solutions for Chapter 18: Carboxylic Acids
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
Male sex hormones.
An amine in which nitrogen is bonded to one or more aryl groups.
In SN2 reactions, the side opposite the leaving group, which is where the nucleophile attacks.
A term describing a molecule or an ion that cannot be superimposed on its mirror image. (Sections 23.4 and 24.5)
The angle created by two intersecting planes.
Important biological molecules that catalyze virtually all cellular processes.
For a reaction, a state in which there is no longer an observable change in the concentrations of reactants and products.
Spin-spin coupling that occurs between nonequivalent H atoms bonded to the same C atom. The H atoms are generally nonequivalent owing to restricted bond rotation in the molecule
The general name given to a group of polysaccharides of glucose that are synthesized in mammals and used to store energy from carbohydrates. (Section 24.7)
The SI unit for radiation dose
A polar group that has favorable interactions with water.
Infrared (IR) spectroscopy
A spectroscopic technique in which a compound is irradiated with infrared radiation, absorption of which causes covalent bonds to change from a lower vibration state to a higher one. Infrared spectroscopy is particularly valuable for determining the kinds of functional groups present in a molecule.
A process that cannot be reversed to restore both the system and its surroundings to their original states. Any spontaneous process is irreversible. (Section 19.1)
Refers to groups occupying l,4-positions on a benzene ring
The pressure exerted by a particular gas in a mixture. (Section 10.6)
A particle with the same mass as an electron but with a positive charge, 0 +1e, or b+. (Section 21.1)
A six-membered cyclic form of a monosaccharide.
R (Section 3.3)
From the Latin, rectus, straight, correct; used in the R,S convention to show that the order of priority of groups on a chiral center is clockwise.
An isotope that is radioactive; that is, it is undergoing nuclear changes with emission of radiation. (Section 21.1)
A polymer that can be melted and molded into a shape that is retained when it is cooled.