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# In cold climates, water pipes may freeze and burst if

ISBN: 9780071284219 39

## Solution for problem 59P Chapter 5

Fluid Mechanics | 2nd Edition

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Fluid Mechanics | 2nd Edition

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Problem 59P

Problem 59P

In cold climates, water pipes may freeze and burst if proper precautions are not taken. In such an occurrence, the exposed part of a pipe on the ground ruptures, and water shoots up to 42 m. Estimate the gage pressure of water in the pipe. State your assumptions and discuss if the actual pressure is more or less than the value you predicted.

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Section 4: Genetic and Molecular Biology Chapter 11 (Notes) Sexual reproduction and meiosis  Meiosis • Meiosis: type of nuclear division which results in half as many chromosomes as the parent cell (Reduction division). ◊ Leads to formation of eggs and sperm (gametogenesis) • Fertilization: process when sperm and egg unite sperm and egg ◊ Leads to offspring that are genetically distinct from each other and from their parents ◊ Each cell produced by meiosis receives a different gene combination • Genes are located on chromosomes ◊ Mistakes during meiosis result in cells containing the wrong number of chromosomes  Chromosomes and autosomes • Karyotype: number and types pf chromosomes present in an organism (basically a picture of someone’s chromosomes) • Sex chromosomes: The 23 chromosome which determine the sex of the individual. (1 pair) ◊ All other chromosomes are autosomes (22 pairs) • Humans have 46 chromosomes in every cell except their gametes • Chromosomes carry genes ◊ Gene: a section of DNA that influences one or more hereditary traits in an individual • Different types of genes are called alleles EXAMPE: Eye shape (gene) Narrow or round eyes (alleles)  Homologous chromosomes • Homologous chromosomes: Chromosomes of the same type (also called homologs) ◊ Homologs carry the same genes in the same locations but each one may contain different alleles.  Concept of ploidy • Ploidy: number of each type of chromosome present (n, 2n, 3n, etc.) ◊ Haploid (n): Organism whose cells contain just one of each type of chromosomes (ex: gametes) ◊ Diploid (2n): organisms whose cells contain two versions of each type of chromosome (one paternal chromosome and one maternal chromosome) ◊ Polypoid (3n,4n, etc..): Organisms with three or more versions of each type of chromosomes

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In cold climates, water pipes may freeze and burst if