A 9150-kg railroad car travels alone on a level frictionlesstrack with a constant speed of 15.0 m/s. A 4350-kg load,initially at rest, is dropped onto the car. What will be thecars new speed?
POLI 360 – Lecture 17 Parties in Congress o The founding fathers initially put most governing power in the state legislatures under the Articles of Confederation. o When the Articles failed, the founding fathers implemented the separation of powers into the Constitution. o The separation of powers was designed to limit the factions’ abilities to enact policies easily and to undermine party unity. o As a result, parties must form policies across different branches of government and different branches of Congress. o Parliamentary Systems Party unity is stronger in parliamentary systems. In these systems, the cabinet is rearranged or the government is dissolved if the leaders cannot muster up a majority for their policies, resulting in no particular election date. Unity is essential in parliamentary systems to prevent government collapse, especially because those parties are massmembership parties with strong platforms that were developed by members and elected officials. o Congressional Systems In contrast, Congress can vote against the president, the Speaker, the majority leader, or any other leader without threat of government dissolution. The congressperson that votes against the party line may suffer personal professional problems, such distrust within the party or fewer campaign donations from the party, but these problems are trivial in relation to government dissolution. Congresspeople are therefore freer to vote the preferences of their constituents or their campaign contributors. o Party Unity Despite all of these factors that limit party unity. Congressional parties are now much more unified than before. Congressional party unity varies over time. Party unity is highest at the beginning of party systems because new political issues produce realignments with the governing party intending to act on those new political issues. Party Voting: proportion of roll call votes on which most Democrats oppose most Republicans. Party unity was also high during the Czar Cannon period (19031911 under Speaker Joseph G. Cannon). He centralized power in the Speaker position by chairing the Rules Committee, controlling the floor, and controlling the rules under which legislation was debated. Cannon also appointed committee members and committee chairs, gratifying loyalty and penalizing disloyalty. The Rules Committee members removed Cannon from the committee in 1910 because of his autocratic leadership style. Soon after Cannon’s reign, Congress took power away from party leaders by taking away the Speaker’s ability to appoint committee members and chairs, leading to a decline in party unity. Party unity declined even more when the Conservative Coalition emerged (1940s1980s); this coalition was comprised of Republicans and conservative Southern Democrats that agreed on positions concerning civil rights, education, and labor unions. Speakers in Congress during that era had little party influence; it was hard for them to influence policymaking and move legislation onto the floor. As party leaders’ policy influence decreased, policy entrepreneurship by individual Congresspeople increased. During the 1960s1970s, legislators tried to further their careers and increase their power by spearheading legislation in unaddressed but developing policy areas. o Rise of the PostReform Congress After the Watergate scandal (mid1970s), many Democrats took the positions of vulnerable Republican congresspeople. These young Democrats took this opportunity to increase the party leaders’ powers by revising the seniority rule. Originally, the seniority rule stated that the most senior member of the majority party on a committee automatically becomes the chair of that committee. Since southern reelection rates were very high, many chairs were Southern Democrats that opposed the party’s policies. The Democratic Caucus revised the seniority rule; it gave itself the power to challenge and remove committee chairs. This revision reduced the committees’ powers in relation to the powers of the party leaders. Other Reforms The power to assign committee members was given to the Steering and Policy committee, which is chaired by the Speaker. The Speaker was also given the power to choose the chair and party members of the Rules Committee. The whip system was made more responsive to the party leaders. Changes in elections and campaigns made parties more ideologically distinct and therefore more unified. o Three Important Changes Party activists became more policymotivated and more ideological. Campaign contributions increasingly came from ideological contributors, pulling parties toward their respective extremes. Southern Democrats were replaced by Southern Republicans, reducing the influence and importance of the Conservative Coalition. Partisan gerrymandering became more complex, resulting in more safe (ideological) seats and fewer swing (moderate) seats. o Party Unity Continued The greatest increase in party unity came with the election of a Republican majority in 1994; the freshman Republican class was very conservative. Speaker Newt Gingrich used his power to select committee chairs that would be loyal to his policy program, Contract with America, and he used the committee structure to get parts of that program on the floor. This extreme party unity continued in the next Democratic Congress under Speaker Nancy Pelosi. There is now less party unity in the Republican Party. POLI 360 – Lecture 18 Parties in the Executive Branch o One of the president’s many duties is to be the party leader. o Modern presidents also take responsibility for party fundraising. o Parties are very polarized now, but the citizens they represent are less polarized. The citizens, however, are more sorted now; liberals are more likely to identify as Democrats and conservatives are more likely to identify as Republicans. o Even unpopular presidents are still popular with their bases, and therefore can still raise lots of money for their respective parties. o Another one of the president’s duties is to choose the chair of his/her party’s national committee. 1. Fun fact: Don Fowler, a faculty member of the USC Political Science Department, was the Democratic National Committee’s chair from 1995 1996! 2. Debbie Schultz, the current chair of the Democratic National Committee, is very controversial because she appears to support Hillary Clinton over Bernie Sanders. Additionally, she has pledged to not campaign against her Republican friends in Florida. o Nowadays, the president also creats their respective party’s foreign and domestic th policies. For example, the 111 Congress supported President Obama’s Medicare overhaul in order to support his presidency, despite the fact that many Democrats privately did not support the package. o On Election Day, presidents influence voting for their respective parties on the rest of the ballot because of the position’s conspicuousness. Popular presidential candidates can increase votes for his/her party, while unpopular presidents can lessen votes for his/her party. 3. Coattail Effect: When candidates for lower positions are voted into office on the coattails of the president (on the president’s popularity). This effect has lessened in recent years, but it still exists. 4. Some candidates that the president sweeps into office are in competitive districts or districts that are usually favored by the opposing party. 5. Additionally, some of these candidates are not strong campaigners. o Presidential popularity also shapes congressional votes during midterm elections. o The president usually loses congressional seats in the midterm election, but the extent of that loss depends on the president’s popularity at the time. o The president’s party usually loses seats in the midterm elections because of the theory of surge and decline: the idea that losing seats in the midterm election reflects different agents of change in the midterm and presidential election years. 6. For example, a popular president is not on the ballot during midterm election years. o As a result, the marginal candidates in marginal districts lose their seats in the midterm election without the president’s popularity to support them. o It is currently unclear if Obama’s coalition of voters is transferable to other candidates. o The Democratic coalition usually stays home for midterm elections, making it harder for a Democratic president to work with Congress. Presidents and Congress o Popular presidents are much more likely to get their policies enacted through Congress than unpopular presidents. o A critical factor that determines presidential success in Congress is which party controls Congress. Presidents are much more likely to get their proposals through Congress when the executive and legislative branches are affiliated with the same party. o Policies will only get enacted in divided government when the electorate of both parties demand the same change. For instance, the current Congress recently passed a large bipartisan bill on opiate regulation because both Republicans and Democrats recognize the need for change in the war on drugs. o Divided government is much more common now than before. o Mayhew, a renowned political scientist, proposes that even if presidents do not have respectable total success rates with Congress, those rates do not affect the enactment of significant legislation. Parties in the Executive Branch o One concern of presidents’ is getting their policies promoted through the executive branch’s bureaucracy. o Bureaucracy exists because one person (the president) cannot implement congressional policies by himself/herself. o Factors That Work Against Presidential Control of Bureaucracy 1. Staggered terms for toplevel bureaucrats, especially when those terms differ from the president’s term. For example, Colin Powell, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff for part of President Bill Clinton’s term, opposed LBGT people in the military and forced Clinton’s initial reform into a “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” law. 2. Bipartisan control of executive agencies and departments. 3. Civil service protections for bureaucrats make it hard to fire employees. 4. Cabinet members and new judges must be confirmed by Senate. 5. Bureaucrats are experts in their fields of study and have access to private information regarding their respective fields of expertise. Those experts can then use that private information to oppose the president’s policies. This would most likely occur when the bureaucrat is in the opposite party of the president. PrincipleAgent Problem: the problem of bureaucrats using their private information to oppose the president’s agenda. This problem is concerning for bureaucracies because people depend on the president to enact policies, and the president depends on bureaucrats to help him carry out those policies; this problem defeats popular sovereignty and creates a lack of accountability. 6. Selfpreservation: bureaucrats have incentives to overstate the importance of their respective department’s policies and then ask for larger budgets. This instinct ensures that their departments remain relevant and important to the president and his agenda.