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A particular inverting circuit uses an ideal op amp and

Microelectronic Circuits | 6th Edition | ISBN: 9780195323030 | Authors: Adel S. Sedra ISBN: 9780195323030 147

Solution for problem 2.9 Chapter 2

Microelectronic Circuits | 6th Edition

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Microelectronic Circuits | 6th Edition | ISBN: 9780195323030 | Authors: Adel S. Sedra

Microelectronic Circuits | 6th Edition

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Problem 2.9

A particular inverting circuit uses an ideal op amp and two 10-k resistors. What closed-loop gain would you expect? If a dc voltage of +1.00 V is applied at the input, what output result? If the 10-k resistors are said to be 1% resistors, having values somewhere in the range (1 0.01) times the nominal value, what range of outputs would you expect to actually measure for an input of precisely 1.00 V?

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Chapter 7 Mood Disorders and Suicide Understanding and Defining Mood Disorders Mood disorders “Depressive disorders” “Affective disorders” “Depressive neuroses” Gross deviations in mood Depression Mania An Overview of Depression and Mania Major depressive episode Extreme depression 2 weeks Cognitive symptoms Physical dysfunction Anhedonia Duration—4 to 9 months, untreated Manic episode Exaggerated elation, joy, euphoria 1 week, or less Cognitive symptoms Duration—3 to 4 months, untreated Hypomanic episode 1Structure of Mood Disorders Unipolar disorders Depression or mania alone Typically depression Bipolar disorders Depression and mania Dysphoric manic episode Mixed manic episode Depressive Disorders Major depressive disorder, single episode No mania/hypomania Single episode Rare Major depressive disorder, recurrent 4 – 7 episodes (lifetime) Duration—4 to 5 months Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia) Milder symptoms Chapter 7 Mood Disorders and Suicide 2+ years Chronic Persistent Double Depression Major depressive episodes and dysthymic disorder Dysthymia first Severe psychopathology Poor course Additional Defining Criteria for Depressive Disorders Symptom Specifiers Psychotic features Hallucinations Delusions Anxious distress Comorbid disorders or anxiety symptoms Mixed features At least 3 symptoms of mania Melancholic Severe somatic symptoms Additional Defining Criteria for Depressive Disorders Symptom specifiers Atypical features Oversleeping and overeating Catatonic features Catalepsy Additional Defining Criteria for Depressive Disorders Symptom specifiers Peripartum onset 13 ­19% meet criteria for depression Seasonal pattern Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) 2.7% of population Melatonin Phototherapy CBT Onset and duration Onset average 30 years old for depression 5­12 years 5% 13­17 years 19% 18­23 years 24% Chapter 7 Mood Disorders and Suicide 24­30 years 16% Duration 2 weeks to several years for depression Early onset has poor prognosis in dysthymic disorder Dysthymic disorder may last 20 to 30 years From Grief to Depression Depression frequently follows loss Integrated grief Pathological or impacted grief reaction Severity of symptoms Dysfunction Persistence of symptoms Additional Defining Criteria for Depressive Disorders Other Depressive Disorders Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) 2­ 5% of women meet criteria Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Children have increased diagnosis for bipolar 40% between 1995 and 2005 Bipolar (NOS) Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Bipolar I Disorder Alternating major depressive and manic episodes Single manic episode Recurrent Symptom­free for 2 months Bipolar II Disorder Cyclothymic Disorder Alternating manic and depressive episodes Chapter 7 Mood Disorders and Suicide Less severe Persists longer Chronic symptoms Adults = 2+ years Children and adolescents = 1+ year Statistics Chronic Risks for Bipolar I/II Additional Defining Criteria for Bipolar Disorders Rapid—cycling specifier 20 – 50% Onset Bipolar I age 15­18 Onset Bipolar II age 19­22 Prevalence of Mood Disorders Children and Adolescents Similar to adults Sex ratio 50:50 Prevalence Adolescence Female disorder Misdiagnosis ADHD Conduct disorder Older adults Prevalence 16% worldwide Over 65 years 1∕2 of general population Female : Male = 1:1 Diagnostic difficulty Across Cultures Similar prevalence among U.S. subcultures Exceptions Native Americans Physical or somatic symptoms Comparability Among the creative Higher prevalence Melancholia Mania Gender differences Chapter 7 Mood Disorders and Suicide Causes of Mood Disorders: Biological Familial and Genetic Influences Family Studies Twin Studies Bipolar Unipolar Higher heritability for females Depression and Anxiety: The Same Genes Shared genetic vulnerability High familial heritability Same genetic factors General predisposition Except mania Depression and Anxiety: Same Genes Causes of Mood Disorders: Biological Neurotransmitter Systems Serotonin—depression The “permissive” hypothesis Dopamine Norepinephrine Dopamine—mania Endocrine System “Stress hypothesis” Overactive HPA axis Neurohormones Elevated cortisol Suppressed hippocampal neurogenesis Dexamethasone suppression test (DST) Sleep and Circadian Rhythms REM sleep Reduced latency Increased intensity Decreased slow wave sleep Sleep deprivation effects Causes of Mood Disorders: Psychological Stressful life events Context Meaning Stressful life events are strongly related to the onset of mood disorders Chapter 7 Mood Disorders and Suicide Reciprocal model Stress and bipolar disorder A more positive set of stressful life events seems to trigger mania Episode develop a “life of their own” Loss of sleep and jet lag Learned Helplessness (Seligman) Lack of perceived control Depressive Attributional Style Internal Stable Global Sense of hopelessness Lack of perceived control W ill not regain control Pessimism Before or after Negative Cognitive Styles Cognitive Theory of Depression (Beck) Cognitive errors in depression Negative interpretations Types of Cognitive Errors Arbitrary inference Overgeneralization Depressive cognitive triad Cognitive Theory of Depression (Beck) Negative schemas Automatic thoughts Treatment implications Correcting the errors Cognitive Vulnerability for Depression Pessimistic explanatory style Negative cognitions Hopelessness attributions Interactions with: Biological vulnerabilities Stressful life events Social and Cultural Dimensions Marriage and Interpersonal Relationships Relationship disruption precedes depression Chapter 7 Mood Disorders and Suicide Strongest effects for males Martial conflict vs. marital support Gender differences in causal direction Mood Disorders in Women Prevalence: Females > males True for all mood disorders Except bipolar Mood Disorders in Women Gender roles Perceptions of uncontrollability Socialization Access to resources Social Support Related to depression Lack of support predicts late onset depression Substantial support predicts recovery for depression (not mania) An Integrative Theory An integrative theory Shared biological vulnerability Psychological vulnerability Exposure to Stress Social and interpersonal relationships Antidepressant Medications Tricyclics (Tofranil, Elavil) Frequently used for severe depression Block reuptake/down regulate Norepinephrine Serotonin 2 to 8 weeks to work Many negative side effects Lethality Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) Inhibitors Block MAO Higher efficacy Fewer side effects Interactions Foods Chapter 7 Mood Disorders and Suicide Medicines Selective MAO­Is Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI) Fluoxetine (Prozac) First treatment choice Block presynaptic reuptake No unique risks Suicide or violence Many negative side effects Mixed reuptake inhibitors Blocking reuptake of norepinephrine as well as serotonin Other medications Venlafaxine Similar to tricyclics Nefazodone Similar to SSRIs St. John’s Wort Questionable efficacy Other issues Efficacy in special populations Children Elderly Preventing relapse Maintaining benefits Lithium Mood­stabilizing drug Common salt Primary treatment for bipolar disorders Unsure of mechanism of action Narrow therapeutic window Too little—ineffective Too much—toxic, lethal Treatment of Mood Disorders: Antimanics Other antimania drugs Carbamazepine Valproate Electroconvulsive Therapy and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Chapter 7 Mood Disorders and Suicide Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) Brief electrical current Temporary seizures 6 to 10 treatments High efficacy Severe depression Few side effects Relapse is common Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) Localized electromagnetic pulse Fewer side effects Efficacy is likely good More studies needed Vagus nerve stimulation Psychological Treatments for Depression Cognitive Therapy Identify errors in thinking Correct cognitive errors Substitute more adaptive thoughts Correct negative cognitive schemas Behavioral therapy Increased positive events Exercise Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) Address interpersonal issues in relationships Role disputes Loss New relationships Social skill deficits Stage of dispute Negotiation stage Impasse stage Resolution stage CBT and IPT Outcomes Comparable to medications More effective than: Placebo Brief psychodynamic treatment Chapter 7 Mood Disorders and Suicide Combined Treatments for Depression Possible benefits above individual treatments 48% benefit from meds or CBT 73% benefit from combined Preventing Relapse of Depression Preventing relapse Universal programs Selected interventions Indicated interventions Preventing relapse Psychological Treatment of Bipolar Disorders Psychological treatment Management of interpersonal problems Increase medication compliance Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy Family­focused treatment Suicide Population specific Caucasians Native Americans Increasing rates Adolescents Elderly Types of suicide (Durkheim) Altruistic Egoistic Anomic Fatalistic Risk Factors Risk factors Family history Neurobiology Preexisting disorder Alcohol Stressful life event Shameful/humiliating stressor Suicide publicity and media coverage Treatment Chapter 7 Mood Disorders and Suicide Importance of assessment Suicidal desire ­ Ideation Suicidal capability – Past attempts Suicidal intent ­ Plan No­suicide contract Hospitalization Complete or partial CBT

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Chapter 2, Problem 2.9 is Solved
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Textbook: Microelectronic Circuits
Edition: 6
Author: Adel S. Sedra
ISBN: 9780195323030

This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Microelectronic Circuits, edition: 6. Since the solution to 2.9 from 2 chapter was answered, more than 272 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. Microelectronic Circuits was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780195323030. This full solution covers the following key subjects: resistors, range, expect, Input, nominal. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 15 chapters, and 1344 solutions. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 2.9 from chapter: 2 was answered by , our top Engineering and Tech solution expert on 11/15/17, 04:00PM. The answer to “A particular inverting circuit uses an ideal op amp and two 10-k resistors. What closed-loop gain would you expect? If a dc voltage of +1.00 V is applied at the input, what output result? If the 10-k resistors are said to be 1% resistors, having values somewhere in the range (1 0.01) times the nominal value, what range of outputs would you expect to actually measure for an input of precisely 1.00 V?” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 73 words.

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A particular inverting circuit uses an ideal op amp and