Distinguish among a scientific fact, a hypothesis, a law, and a theory.
Solution 11RQ Scientific fact: A scientific fact can be an observation. For example, an iron ball sinks in water. Hypothesis: A hypothesis can be a probable explanation to describe a scientific fact. The iron ball sinks because it may have a higher density than water. Theory: A theory is a rule obtained by validating a hypothesis. The iron ball has more density than water and hence it sinks. The density of the iron ball is measured. Law: A law is a universally accepted theory which is proven by several experiments and observations. It is the most concise proof that a particular phenomenon happens. For example, let us consider Boyle’s law of pressure and volume. When temperature remains constant, pressure increase is accompanied by a decrease in volume of a gas. This is established by several measurements.