The circuit in Fig. P4.74 implements a complementary-output rectifier. Sketch and clearly label the waveforms of and Assume a 0.7-V drop across each conducting diode. If the magnitude of the average of each output is to be 15 V, find the required amplitude of the sine wave across the entire secondary winding. What is the PIV of each diode?
ANTH 1000 Jo Phipps Exam #2 Study Guide (Units 5-9) Unit 5: Evolution and Human Variation How do we classify living things (Systema Naturae) -Categories based on internal and external visual similarities -Species, Genus, Family, Order, Class, Phylum, Kingdom Ideas about the age of the Earth -Young Earth -Archbishop James Ussher -1650: Calculated that the earth was created on Sunday, Oct 23, 4004 BC (~6000 yrs old) -Theory of Deep Time -The earth is extremely old (developed and changed via natural processes) -Basis for Charles Lyell's theory of uniformitarianism (geologic processes is the same as it was in the past as it is in the present) -Gradualist model of change Theories of Evolution Jean Baptiste Lamarck -Saw that environmental change lead to biological change -Changes with each generation inherited -Example: giraffe's necks grew in order to get food from high trees Charles Darwin -Similarities between Galapagos and mainland animals -Noted differences between animals on each island -Example: different species of birds, reptiles, mammals etc. were different from other islands because of environmental differences -Darwin's Finches; beak differences based on food preferences (leaves, seeds, buds/fruit, insects, grubs) and tool-using finches -Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection -Primary mechanism of change -External and gradual Principles of Natural Selection -Three main principles: 1 Variation within species 2 Hereditability of Traits 3 Differential reproductive success Types of Natural Selection -Directional (operates in response to environmental change) -Stabilizing (pressures that keep the population in check with stable environment) Mendelian Genetics -Phenotype (observable expression of genotype) -Genotype (genetic makeup of species, total of all genes) -Homozygous (individual with matching genes for a trait (AA, aa)) -Heterozygous (individual with non-matching genes (Aa)) What is the role of mutations in evolution -changes in DNA sequence (increases variation; adaptive ones may lead to evolution) How can genetic variation be distributed in a species -Genetic Drift (Founder’s Effect) -the loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population. -Gene Flow -movement of traits among populations by migrating individuals; can increase variation in a population; can decrease genetic diversity among population; can prevent speciation What accounts for phenotypic variation in humans -Genotype and environment -Alleles Acclimatization -individual-based physiological adjustments to an environment Bergman’s Rule -an ecogeographic principle that states that within a broadly distributed taxonomic clade, populations and species of larger size are found in colder environments, and species of smaller size are found in warmer regions. Allen’s Rule -the body shapes and proportions of endotherms vary by climatic temperature by either minimizing exposed surface area to minimize heat loss in cold climates or maximizing exposed surface area to maximize heat loss in hot climates. Skin Color -the greater the distance from the equator, the lighter the skin tone; developed more sweat glands and grew less body hair What are the differences between race and ethnicity Ethnicity = a population of people that share a common history, cultural values, language, homeland [ancestral or contemporary]) Race = ethnicities assumed to have a biological basis How does culture act as an external pressure on the human body -Different standards and practices for each culture Example:Chinese Foot Binding -started among wealthy families during Southern Tang dynasty (618-906 AD) -symbol of freedom from need to work -in 1600's, practice became widespread among Han girls -Banned by Communist party in 1949 How do statuses affect our position in society (ascribed/achieved) -Ascribed Status(one that you are born with; ex: Queen Elizabeth III) -Achieved Status(obtained through accomplishments made during our lifetime) -The Untouchables of India and the caste system Consists of our hierarchical social classes called Varnas -Brahmins (priests) -Ksaitryas (warriors) -Vaisyas (merchants) -Sudras (laborers) -Each varna divided into subgroups based on occupation (Jati) -Caste system is a closed social system -born into a caste (ascribed) -must marry someone of the same Jati (achieved) Unit 6: The Primates What are anatomical analogies and homologies -Analogies = structures possessed by different species but not derived from a common ancestral structure -Homologies = an ancestral structure found in different species What is the modern taxonomic system -Includes evolutionary relationships -Types of evolutionary anatomical features incluse Analogies and Homologies Know the basic anatomical characteristics of all primates (i.e. what makes a primate) Nails Heterdont dentition Opposable/grasping digits Attached collarbone Stereoscopic vision Close-set eyes encircled by bone What are the characteristics of primate societies and behaviors -Primate social organization -Reproductive strategies -Sexual dimorphism (the differences in appearance between males and females of the same species, such as in colour, shape, size, and structure, that are caused by the inheritance of one or the other sexual pattern in the genetic material) -Grooming Know which primates are classified in the following suborders/groups of living primates: Strepsirhines (Prosimians when tarsiers are included) -Bridge anatomical gaps between haplorhines and archaic primates Haplorhines -Tarsiiforms; anthropoids Anthropoids -a higher primate, especially an ape or apeman. Catarrhines -a catarrhine primate. Platyrrhines -of or relating to primates of a group that comprises the New World monkeys, marmosets, and tamarins. They are distinguished by having nostrils that are far apart and directed forward or sideways, and typically have a prehensile tail. Hominoids -a primate of a family ( Hominidae ) that includes humans and their fossil ancestors. Recall what environmental conditions favored the evolution of primate traits: -Subtropical climates -Spread of deciduous and fruiting trees -Widespread forests in high latitudes Be familiar with the time spans and significant characteristics of the following prehominids: Carpolestes = the first common primate ancestor; 56 m.y.a. Peleocene epoch; grasping hands and feet evolved first Aegyptopithecus = 33 m.y.a. (Oligocene epoch); arboreal quadruped; monkey-shaped skull; possible common ancestor for Old World monkey and apes Proconsul = 20 mya (Early Miocene); Kenya/Uganda; lacked a tail, varied in size; arboreal quadruped; ate leaves Dryopithecus = 15 m.y.a.; Eurasia forests; mainly arboreal; size of chimpanzees; omnivorous; resembled African apes and humans Unit 7: The Early Hominins Be familiar with the following human characteristics: -Bipedalism (short and wide pelvis, S-shaped spine, shorter arms, longer legs, balancing big toe, etc) -Vision (stereoscopic and trichromatic; loss of smell acuteness) -Hands (long, fully opposable thumbs, independent control of fingers, power grip and precision grip) -Brain (enlarged cerebral cortex, increased number of neutrons) -Language -Culture Be familiar with the following hominids (timeframe, geographic range, and significant anatomical characteristics): Ardipithecus ramidus (Ardi) -4.4 m.y.a. -Bipedal but flat-footed; walked on palms of hands, not knuckles -“Transitional biped” -Foramen magnum under skull Australopithecus afarensis (Lucy) -3.8-2.9 m.y.a. -Sexually dimorphic; relatively large brain; partially arboreal Australopithecus africanus -3.3-2.1 m.y.a.; -Found in South Africa -Anatomically similar to afarensis (Lucy), but rounder cranium with larger brain, and smaller teeth -Pelvis, leg and foot bones show bipedalism; shoulder and hand bones still adapted to trees Australopithecus boisei -2.3 – 1.3 m.y.a. -Found in East Africa -Diet of coarse seeds, nuts, and roots -Not considered an ancestor to Homo genus; sometimes classified into its own genus of Paranthropus (robust type only) What makes an australopith gracile or robust -The gracile form was much less specialized ( it could have done alright in a variety of environments) -The robust avoided competition by becoming more specialized, the robust form was suited for only one environment and were eventually outcompeted by gorillas. How do lumpers and splitters differ on interpreting phenotypic variation in fossil hominins -Lumpers see high variation within one species -Spitters see variation of some traits as new species (Robust Australopiths seen as Paranthropus) What are characteristics of early Hominin behavior Oldowan tools (choppers and flakes; choppers good for breaking open bones, flakes good for cutting hide and muscle) Early cultural behavior patterns (cooperative food processing and sharing; inceasing reliance on meat; likely family-based groups, less male-male competition, more complex social lives) Selective environmental pressures (seasonal food variation; less plant food during dry season, needed alternative source of calories) Unit 8: Becoming Homo Be familiar with the significant anatomical characteristics and cultural behaviors of the following hominins: Homo habilis/rudolfensis -“Handy Man” -2.3 – 1.6 m.y.a.; Sub-Saharan Africa -Long arms, partially aboreal, finger bones show precision grip (larger blood supply and nerve pathways in hands), increase in cranial capacity -H. Rudolfensis found only in East Africa -relatively larger brain, smaller teeth than H. Habilis, largest hominid so far -West extinct at exactly the same time as H. Habilis Homo erectus -“Upright man” -1.9 m.y.a. – 143,000 y.a. -First hominid to be widely spread across Old World -Modern body proportions, tropical body build, largest brain at current evolutionary stage (1000 cc) Homo heidelbergensis -700,000- 200,000 y.a. -Found in Africa, Europe, and Asia -Evidence of active hunting and improved speech capabilities -Fossils link H. erectus and early H. sapiens, not easily placed in either one Homo neanderthalensis -130,000-28,000 y.a. -Larger brains, more robust skeleton -Glacial plains specialist, Overlapped anatomically modern humans in Europe and Asia Homo sapiens -160,000 y.a. -Anatomically different from archaic H. sapiens Two theories: 1. Single Origin (out of Africa) 2. Multiregional Homo florensiensis -Species dates between 95,000-12,000 y.a. -chimp-sized brain -timespan overlaps two other homo species (H. erectus and H. sapiens) **Homo naledi -“New family member” -Discovered in a remote cave chamber in South Africa, excavated through 2014 -about 15 individuals represented from elderly adults to infants -Not clear if deliberately buried or “tossed” to the back -Mix of primitive and moe recent traits (smaller brain to body ratio than other homo species) -ape-like arms for climbing, Pelvis like A. afarensis (Lucy) -Modern human-like feet and wrists Unit 9: Advent of Agriculture and Rise of City-States Be familiar with types of human activity in the Mesolithic (15,000-10,000 BP) -broad spectrum foraging -A subsistence strategy based on collecting a wide range of plants and animals by hunting, fishing, and gathering. -where sedentary populations were -Middle East, Africa, Peru, Europe Know the major events and locations in the Neolithic period, including where certain crops were domesticated (10,000-3,000 BP) -Middle East (Fertile Crescent) - 10,000 y.a. -Fertile Crescent (evidence of extensive trade networks at some sites) -Drastic climate change (more seasonal, fluctuating food availability) -Mesoamerica -7,000 y.a. -Beans and squash -Spread to North and South America (lima beans, potatoes, grounds; less importance of animal power) -Africa and Asia -6,000 y.a. -Evidence of social stratification in Middle East villages Be able to explain some of the theories of why crop and animal domestication developed -Drastic Climate Change (Middle East) -more seasonal, fluctuation food availability) -Support population growth in optimal foraging areas -Global-scale population pressure -response to overabundance of foragers in prime regions Be familiar with the conditions that led to the rise of city-states, and characteristics of a large-scale civilization -Social Stratification -A system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy. -Specialized trades and tools; Variation in house and community sizes; Individuals gaining political authority over several communities (chiefdom) -3500 B.C.: Evidence of first civilization -writing systems; Full-time craftsmen; Monumental architecture -Hierarchical political system (state) - “The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race” -Malnutrition/ increased risk of starvation -increased rate of infectious diseases -development of bone conditions due to increase in hard physical labor -Emergence of social inequality -Rise of agriculture directly related to rise of poverty What are the three types of societies and how do they differ -Egalitarian -equal access to economic resources, power and prestige -Foraging -Rank -Significant inequality in access to prestige -Agriculture or Pastoralism - “Semi-Stratified” -Class -Unequal access to prestige -Classes of people with varying access to economic resources and power - “Stratified”