Augment the rectifier circuit of 4.68 with a capacitor chosen to provide a peak-to-peak ripple voltage of (i) 10% of the peak output and (ii) 1% of the peak output. In each case: (a) What average output voltage results? (b) What fraction of the cycle does the diode conduct? (c) What is the average diode current? (d) What is the peak diode current?

Module 2D : XOR/ XNOR gates AN XOR gate is a 2 input gate whose output is “1” if exactly one of its inputs is 1 or if its inputs are different. The Truth table is similar to an OR function except for the 1 – 1 combination. An XNOR gate is the inverse of the XOR gate. The dual and complement of an XOR gate both are the same. This is an interesting property. An XNOR gate is also referred to as an XAND gate. This function is non reducible. We use a symbol which is called “ring – sum”. This is basically a way of saying the inversion of X anded with Y and or’ed with X anded with the inverse of Y. XOR properties o X X = X•X + X•X = 0 + 0 = 0 o X X = X•X + X•X = 0 + 0 = 0 o X 1 = X •1 + X•0 = X o X 1 = X•1 + X•