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Consider the system shown in Fig. P181. If a change of 0.7

Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780073398174 | Authors: Yunus A. Cengel ISBN: 9780073398174 171

Solution for problem 181 Chapter 1

Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach | 8th Edition

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Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780073398174 | Authors: Yunus A. Cengel

Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach | 8th Edition

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Problem 181

Consider the system shown in Fig. P181. If a change of 0.7 kPa in the pressure of air causes the brinemercury interface in the right column to drop by 5 mm in the brine level in the right column while the pressure in the brine pipe remains constant, determine the ratio of A2/A1.

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Study Guide for Chapters 9-11 Need to Know for Chapter 9 1.Obesity and body image: - Children grow to about 2 to 3 inches each year between ages 6 and 11 and double their weight during this period. - Girls retain more fatty tissue than boys do. This characteristic lasts through adulthood. - African American boys and girls grow faster than white children. - The average 10-year old weighs 11 more pounds than 40 years ago. - Mexican American girls have more body fat than white girls. - In the U.S. about 17% of children between the ages of 2 and 19 are obese and another 16.5% are overweight. - Boys are more likely to be overweight than girls. - It is most prevalent in Mexican American boys and non- Hispanic black girls. - BODY IMAGE: how one believes one looks. - Body image becomes important early in middle childhood, especially for girls. - Body image can develop into eating disorders in adolescence. - Obesity often results from an inherited tendency aggravated by too little exercise and too much or the wrong kinds of food. Children are more likely to be overweight if they have overweight parents. 2.Illness in Middle Childhood: - ACUTE MEDICAL CONDITIONS: Occasional, short-term conditions, such as infections and warts. - Six or even seven bouts a year with colds, flu, or viruses are typical as germs pass among children at school or play. - CHRONIC MEDICAL CONDITIONS: physical, developmental, behavioral, or emotional conditions that persist for 3 months or more. - 12.8% of U.S. children have or are at risk of developing a chronic medical condition. - ASTHMA: a chronic, allergy-based respiratory disease characterized by sudden attacks of coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing. - U.S. has historically high level of children with asthma. About 12% of children. - Asthma is more likely in boys than in girls and more likely in black children than white children. - Researchers have discovered a gene mutation that increases the risk of developing asthma even though they do not know the real cause. - Air pollutants and tobacco smoke increase the risk as well. - DIABETES: one of the most common diseases in school- aged children. Characterized by high levels of glucose in the blood as a result of defective insulin production, ineffective insulin action, or both. - Type 1 Diabetes is the result of an insulin deficiency that occurs when insulin-producing cells in the pancreas are destroyed. - Accidental injuries are the leading cause of death among school-age U.S. children. - 88% of brain injuries could be prevented by using helmets. - High risks from snowmobiles and trampolines. 3.Cognitive Advances: - CONCRETE OPERATIONS: When a child can use the mental operations, such as reasoning, to solve concrete (actual) problems. Better use of maps and models. - SPATIAL THINKING: A child can use a map or model to help them search for a hidden object and can give someone else directions for finding the object. They can find their way to and from school, can estimate distances, and can judge how long it will take them to go from one place to another. - CAUSE AND EFFECT: A child knows which physical attributes of objects on each side of a balance scale will affect the result (number or objects matter but color does not). However, they do not know which spatial factors make a difference (placement of objects). - CATEGORIZATION: Being able to sort objects into categories, such as shape, color, or both. They know that a subclass (roses) have fewer members than the class that it is part of (flowers). - SERIATION AND TRANSITIVE INFERENCE: Being able to arrange a group of sticks in order, from the shortest to the longest, and can insert an intermediate-size stick into the proper place. Knowing the difference between lengths and which ones are longer than others. - INDUCTIVE AND DEDUCTIVE REASONING: being able to solve both inductive and deductive problems and knows that inductive conclusions (based on particular premises) are less certain than deductive conclusions (based on general premises). Inductive: making observations about particular members of a class of people, animals, objects, or events, and then drawing conclusions about the class as a whole. Ex:// If a neighbor’s dog barks, and another neighbor’s dog barks, then the conclusion that all dogs bark is drawn. Deductive: starts with a general statement about a class and applies it to particular members of the class. Ex:// if the belief is that all dogs bark, and a new dog comes along, it would be reasonable to conclude that the new dog will also bark. - CONSERVATION: A child at age 7 knows that if a clay ball is rolled into a sausage, it still contains the same amount of clay (conservation of substance). That same child at age 9 knows that the ball and the sausage weigh the same. Not until early adolescence will he understand that they displace the same amount of liquid if it is dropped into a glass of water. Horizontal decalage: The inability to transfer knowledge of conservation. Liquids vs. solids - NUMBER AND MATHEMATICS: When a child can count in their head, can add by counting up from the smaller number, and can do simple story problems. - CLASS INCLUSION: the ability to see the relationship between a whole and its parts, and to understand the categories within a whole. 4.Moral Reasoning: - Piaget proposed that moral reasoning develops in three stages. He argued that children move gradually from one stage to another, at varying ages. - THE FIRST STAGE: from ages 2-7 and is based on rigid obedience to authority. Young children are egocentric and cannot imagine that there is more than one way of looking at a moral issue. They believe that rules cannot be bent or changed, that behavior is either right or wrong, and that offense deserves punishment. - THE SECOND STAGE: ages 7 or 8- 10 or 11 and is characterized by increasing flexibility. Children begin to develop their own sense of justice based on fairness or equal treatment for all. They are able to consider more than one aspect of a situation and make more subtle judgements. - THE THIRD STAGE: around age 11 or 12. The belief that everyone should be treated alike gives way to the ideal of equity. According to Piaget, a child of this age might say that a 2-year old who spilled ink on the tablecloth should be held to a less demanding moral standard than a 10- year old. 5.Memory Aides: - SELECTIVE ATTENTION: the ability to deliberately direct one’s attention and shut out distractions. - WORKING MEMORY: involves the short-term storage of information that is being actively processed, like mental workspace. Ex:// if you are asked to compute what 42 x 60 is, you would use your working memory to hold part of the answer while you solved the rest. - METAMEMORY: knowledge about the processes of memory. Can be thought of thinking about memory. - MNEMONICS: a strategy to aid memory (Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally). The most common is the use of external memory aids. - EXTERNAL MEMORY AIDS: prompts by something outside the person. - REHEARSAL: Saying a telephone number over and over after looking it up is a form of rehearsal, or conscious repetition. - ORGANIZATION: mentally placing information into categories (such as animals, furniture, vehicles, and clothing) to make it easier to recall. 6.Psychometric Approach – Intelligence: - WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN (WISC-IV): The most widely used individual test. It is used or ages 6 through 16 and measures verbal and performance abilities, yielding separate scores for each as well as a total space. Pinpoint a child’s strengths and help diagnose specific problems. - OTIS-LENNON SCHOOL ABILITY TEST (OLSAT8): has levels for kindergarten through 12 grade. Children are asked to classify items, show an understanding of verbal and numerical concepts, display general information, and follow directions. - Both heredity and environment influence intelligence. 7.IQ Controversy: - Whether or not IQ tests actually measure intelligence. - BRAIN DEVELOPMENT: Brain imaging research shows a moderate correlation between brain size or amount of gray matter and general intelligence, especially reasoning and problem solving abilities. - SCHOOLING: schooling seems to increase tested intelligence. Children who entered school late, lost as many as 5 IQ points each year. IQ scores also drop during summer vacation. - RACE/ETHNICITY AND SES: leads to claim that tests are unfair to minorities. Gap has narrowed between test scores between white and black children as well as Hispanic American children. The strength of genetic influence itself appears to vary with socioeconomic status. - CULTURE: Behavior seen as intelligent in one culture may seem foolish in another. IQ tests vary between cultures because of this. 8.Gardener’s View on Intelligence: - LINGUISTIC: Ability to use and understand words and nuances of meaning. (writing, editing, translating) - LOGICAL-MATHEMATICAL: Ability to manipulate numbers and solve logical problems. (science, business, medicine) - SPATIAL: Ability to find one’s way around in an environment and judge relationships between objects in space. (architecture, carpentry, city planning) - MUSICAL: Ability to perceive and create patterns of pitch and rhythm. (musical composition, conducting) - BODILY-KINESTHETIC: Ability to move with precision. (dancing, athletics, surgery) - INTERPERSONAL: Ability to understand and communicate with others. (teaching, acting, politics) - INTRAPERSONAL: Ability to understand the self. (counseling, psychiatry, spiritual leadership) - NATURALIST: Ability to distinguish species and their characteristics. (hunting, fishing, farming, gardening, cooking) 9.Pragmatics: - Pragmatics: the social context of language. - Includes both conversational and narrative skills. th - GENDER DIFFERENCES: study in London with 4 graders: when boys and girls worked together, boys used more controlling statements and negative interruptions, whereas girls phrased their remarks in a more tentative, conciliatory way. 10. Congressional Acts on Education: - THE NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND ACT OF 2001: emphasizes accountability, expanded parental options, local control, and flexibility. The intent is to funnel federal funding to research-based programs and practices, with special emphasis on reading and mathematics. Students in grades 3 through 8 are tested annually. 11. Children with Learning Problems: - INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY: significantly subnormal cognitive functioning. Indicated by an IQ of 70 or less. Sometimes referred to as cognitive disability or mental retardation. In most cases, the cause is unknown. - LEARNING DISORDER: The two most commonly diagnosed conditions causing behavioral and learning problems are Learning Disabilities (LD) and attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is a syndrome characterized by persistent inattention and distractibility, impulsivity, low tolerance for frustration, and inappropriate over-activity. - LEARNING DISABILITIES: disorders that interfere with specific aspects of school achievement, such as listening, speaking, reading, writing, or mathematics. Dyslexia is the most commonly diagnosed LD. - DYSLEXIA: developmental disorder in which reading achievement is substantially lower than predicted by IQ or age. - INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES EDUCATION ACT: ensures a free, appropriate public education for all children with disabilities. - INCLUSION PROGRAMS: programs in which children with special needs are included in the regular classroom. (integrating disabled and non-disabled children) 12. Gifted Children: - High general intelligence as shown by an IQ score of 130 or higher. Generally excludes highly creative children, children from minority groups, and children with specific aptitudes. - ENRICHMENT PROGRAMS: broadens knowledge through classroom activities, research activities, and field trips. - ACCELERATION PROGRAMS: speeds up education through grade skipping, fast-paced classes, or advanced classes. 13. Defining and Measuring Creativity: - There are two kinds of thinking: Convergent and Divergent - CONVERGENT: The kind that IQ tests measure. These are looking for a single answer. Chapter 10 Need to Know 1. Self-Concept Development: - Young children’s self-concepts focus on physical attributes, possessions, and global descriptions. At around ages 7 or 8, children reach the third stage of self-concept development. Judgements about the self become more conscious, realistic, balanced, and comprehensive as children from representational systems. - REPRESENTATIONAL SYSTEMS: broad, inclusive, self- concepts that integrate various aspects of the self. - A child can see themselves as “smart” in one subject and “dumb” in another. They can compare their “real self” with their “ideal self”. 2. Erikson’s Developmental Stage/Crisis: - INDUSTRY VS INFERIORITY: Erikson’s fourth stage of psychosocial development. There is an opportunity for growth represented by a sense of industry and a complementary risk represented by inferiority. - If a child is not able to obtain praise from an adult, or lack motivation or self-esteem, they might develop a sense of inferiority. - Developing a sense of industry involves learning how to work hard to achieve goals. 3. Emotional Growth and Prosocial Behavior: - As children get older, they are more aware of their own and other people’s feelings. They can better control their emotions and respond to others’ emotional distress. - By age 7 or 8, children are aware of shame and pride, and they have a clearer idea of the difference between guilt and shame. They also understand their conflicting emotions. - By middle childhood, children are aware of their culture’s rules for acceptable emotional expression. They learn what makes them angry, fearful, or sad and how other people react to displays of these emotions and they learn to behave accordingly. - EMOTIONAL SELF-REGULATION: effortful control of emotions, attention and behavior. - Children low in effortful control tend to become visibly angry or frustrated when interrupted or prevented from doing something they want to do. - Children high in effortful control can hide their emotions at inappropriate times. - Children tend to become more empathetic and more inclined to prosocial behavior in middle childhood. 4. After School Programs: - Generally have low enrollment, low child-staff ratios, and well-educated staff. - Children, especially boys, in after school programs with flexible programming, and a positive emotional climate tend to adjust better and do better in school. 5. Persistent Poverty- Effects: - About 22% of U.S. children up to age 17 lived in poverty in 2010. (39% of black children and 35% of Hispanic children) - Children with single mothers are nearly 5 times more likely to be poor than children living with married couples. - Poor children are more likely than other children to have emotional or behavioral problems. - Their cognitive potential and school performance suffer even more. - Parents who live in poverty are likely to become anxious, depressed, and irritable and thus may become less affectionate and less responsive to their children. They may discipline inconsistently, harshly, and arbitrarily. - Children tend to become depressed, have trouble getting along with others, lack self-confidence, develop behavioral and academic problems, and to engage in antisocial acts. - Effective parenting and family interventions can buffer children from the effects of poverty. 6. Adoptions: - 1.5 million U.S. children under the age of 18 lived with at least one adoptive parent and about 136,000 children are adopted annually. - An estimated 60% of legal adoptions are by stepparents or relatives, usually grandparents. - OPEN ADOPTIONS: when both parties share information or have direct contact with the child. - Challenges associated with adopting a child: integrating the adopted child into the family, explaining the adoption to the child, helping the child develop a healthy sense of self, and perhaps eventually helping the child find and contact the biological parents. - Few significant differences in adjustment between adopted and non-adopted children have been found. - About 17% of adoptions are transracial, most often involving white parents adopting an Asian or Latin American child. 7. Children’s Choice of Peers: - Groups form naturally among children who live near one another or go to school together and often consist of children of the same racial or ethnic origin and similar socioeconomic status. - Children who play together are usually close in age and of the same sex. - PREJUDICE: unfavorable attitudes toward outsiders, especially members of certain racial of ethnic groups. - POSITIVE NOMINATION: children can say who they like to play with, who they like the most, or who they think other kids like the most. - NEGATIVE NOMINATION: children they don’t like to play with, like the least, or think other kids don’t like. - SOCIOMETRIC POPULARITY: the tally that is composed of positive nominations, negative nominations, or no nominations. - SOCIOMETRIC POPULAR CHILDREN: children that receive many positive nominations and few negative nominations. Generally have good cognitive abilities, high achievers, good at solving social problems, are kind and help other children, and are assertive without being aggressive. - SOCIOMETRIC UNPOPULAR CHILDREN: They can be unpopular in two ways: rejected and receive a large number of negative nominations or neglected and receive few nominations of any kind. Some unpopular children are aggressive and others are hyperactive and withdrawn. They do not adapt well to new situations and are insensitive to other children’s feelings. - Children look for friends who are like them in age, sex, and interests. Friendships are associated with positive developmental outcomes. 8. Selman’s Stages of Friendship: - Stage 0: Momentary playmateship (ages 3 to 7) - On this undifferentiated level of friendship, children tend to think only about what they want from a relationship. Most very young children define their friends in terms of physical closeness and value them for material or physical attributes. “She lives on my street” or “He has power rangers” - Stage 1: One-way assistance (ages 4 to 9) – On this unilateral level, a “good friend” does what the child wants the friend to do. “She’s not my friend anymore because she wouldn’t go with me when I wanted her to.” - Stage 2: Two-way fair-weather cooperation (ages 6 to 12) – This reciprocal level overlaps stage 1. It involves give-and-take but still serves many separate self-interests, rather than the common interests of the two friends. “We are friends; we do things for each other” - Stage 3: Intimate, mutually shared relationships (ages 9 to 15) – On this mutual level, children view a friendship as an ongoing, systematic, committed relationship that incorporates more than doing things for each other. Friends become possessive and demand exclusivity. “It takes a long time to make a close friend, so you really feel bad if you find out that your friend is trying to make other friends too” - Stage 4: Autonomous interdependence (beginning at age 12) – In this interdependent stage, children respect friends’ needs for both dependency and autonomy. “a good friendship is a real commitment, a risk you have to take” 9. Aggression and Bullying: - Aggression declines and changes in form during the early school years. After age 6 or 7, children become less aggressive as they grow less egocentric, more empathetic, more cooperative, and better able to communicate. - INSTRUMENTAL AGGRESSION: aggression aimed at achieving an objective. *The hallmark of the preschool period* - HOSTILE AGGRESSION: aggression intended to hurt another person - HOSTILE ATTRIBUTIONAL BIAS: when people quickly conclude that others were acting with ill intent and are likely to strike out in retaliation or self-defense. - Media violence can lead to long-term aggressiveness. - Aggression becomes bullying when it is deliberately, persistently directed against a particular target. - Bullying can be physical, verbal, or emotional. - Bullying can be PROACTIVE: done to show dominance - Or REACTIVE: responding to a real or imagined attack. - CYBERBULLYING: posting negative comments or derogatory photos of the victim on a web site. - Physical bullying decreases with age but other bullying increases. - Bullies are often feared, dominant, respected, and even liked. - Children who have academic problems are more likely to be bullies than victims. 10. Emotional Problems in Middle Childhood: - Children with emotional problems are more likely to have conditions that affect their daily activities and cause them to miss school. - OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANT DISORDER (ODD)- a pattern of defiance, disobedience, and hostility toward adult authority figures lasting at least 6 months and going beyond the bounds of normal childhood behavior. Children with ODD constantly fight, argue, lose their temper, snatch things, blame others, and are angry and resentful. - CONDUCT DISORDER (CD) – a persistent, repetitive pattern, beginning at an early age, of aggressive, antisocial acts, such as truancy, setting fires, habitual lying, fighting, bullying, theft, vandalism, assaults, and drug and alcohol use. - Between 6 and 16 percent of boys and 2 and 9 percent of girls are diagnosed with clinical levels of externalizing behavior or conduct problems. - OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER (OCD) – Children with this disorder may be obsessed by repetitive, intrusive thoughts, images or impulses (often involving irrational fears); or may show compulsive behaviors, such as constant hand-washing; or both. - CHILDHOOD DEPRESSION – a disorder of mood that goes beyond normal, temporary sadness. Depression is estimated to occur in 2% of preschool children and up to 2.8% of children under the age of 13 years. 11. Resilient Children & Protective Factors: - RESILIENT CHILDREN – those who weather circumstances that might blight others, who maintain their composure and competence under challenge or threat, or who bounce back from traumatic events. - PROTECTIVE FACTORS: the two MOST important protective factors that help children and adolescents overcome stress and contribute to resilience are: good family relationships, and cognitive functioning. - Resilient children tend to have high IQs and to be good problem solvers, and their cognitive ability may help them cope with adversity, protect themselves, regulate their behavior, and learn from experience. - Other frequently cited protective factors include the following: the child’s temperament or personality, compensating experiences, and reduced risk. 12. School Phobia/Anxiety: - SCHOOL PHOBIA – an unrealistic fear of going to school - SEPARATION ANXIETY DISORDER – a condition involving excessive anxiety for at least 4 weeks concerning separation from home or from people to whom the child is attached. - SOCIAL PHOBIA OR SOCIAL ANXIETY – extreme fear and/or avoidance of social situations such as speaking in class of meeting an acquaintance on the street. - GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER – anxiety that is not focused on any specific part of the child’s life. These children worry about everything: school grades, storms, earthquakes, and hurting themselves on the playground. Chapter 11 Need to Know 1. Puberty and Sexual Maturity: - PUBERTY: the process that leads to sexual maturity, or fertility- the ability to reproduce. - Physicians in some Western societies see pubertal changes well before age 10. - Puberty involves dramatic biological changes - Puberty begins with hormonal changes: a. First, the hypothalamus releases elevated levels of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) b. Next, the increased GnRH triggers a rise in lutenizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). c. In girls, increased levels of FSH lead to the onset of menstruation. d. In boys, LH initiates the release of two additional hormones: testosterone and androstenedione. - Puberty can be broken down into two basic stages: adrenarche and gonadarche. a. Adrenarche occurs between ages 6 and 8. Adrenal glands secrete increasing levels of androgens, most notably dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). b. Gonadarche is marked by the maturing of the sex organs, which triggers a second burst of DHEA production. - PRIMARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS: the organs necessary for reproduction. In the female, the sex organs include the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, clitoris, and vagina. In the male, they include the testes, penis, scrotum, seminal vesicles, and prostate gland. During puberty, these organs enlarge and mature. - SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS: physiological signs of sexual maturation that do not directly involve sex organs, for example, the breasts of females and the broad shoulders of males. - The first external signs of puberty typically are breast tissue and pubic hair in girls and enlargement of the testes in boys. - ADOLESCENT GROWTH SPURT: a rapid increase in height, weight, and muscle and bone growth that occurs during puberty. Begins between ages 9 ½ and 14 ½ and in boys between 10 ½ and 16. Typically lasts about 2 years. - SPERMARCHE- the first ejaculation. Occurs at an average age of 13. - MENARCHE – the first menstruation. Occurs fairly late from ages 10 to 16 1/2. - SECULAR TREND – a trend that spans several generations. 2. Adolescent Brain: - Dramatic changes in brain structures involved in emotions, judgement, organization of behavior, and self- control take place between puberty and young adulthood. - Risk-taking appears to result from the interaction of two brain networks: a socio-emotional network and a cognitive-control network. - SOCIO-EMOTIONAL NETWORK – sensitive to social and emotional stimuli - COGNITIVE-CONTROL NETWORK – regulates responses to stimuli - There is a steady increase in the white matter of the brain during adolescence. It allows nerve impulses to be transmitted more rapidly and helps neurons synchronize their firing rate, thus improving adolescents’ information- processing abilities. - Described as a “work in progress” - Immaturity of adolescent brain has led to questions of legal responsibility - Two major brain changes: Growth Spurt and Gray matter growth - The growth spurt is chiefly in frontal lobes. Deals with reasoning, judgement, and impulse control. - Gray matter growth is continued myelination and facilitates maturation of cognitive abilities. 3. Sleep Needs and Problems: - Sleep deprivation among adolescents has been called an epidemic. - 45% of adolescents reported getting insufficient sleep - 31% were borderline - 20% slept the recommended amount - Children generally go to sleep later and sleep less on school days the other they get. - Sleeping in on weekends does not make up for the loss of sleep on school nights. - Sleep deprivation can sap motivation and cause irritability, and concentration and school performance can suffer - Young people ages 16 to 29 are most likely to be involved in crashes caused by the driver falling asleep - Average sleep declines to less than 8 hours at age 16 - Adolescents need more sleep than when they were younger - Changes in circadian timing and melatonin may account for tendency to stay up late. - School schedules are out of sync with biological rhythms 4. Nutrition and Eating Disorders: - U.S. adolescents have less healthy diets than other industrialized countries - They eat fewer fruits and vegetables and more sweets, chocolates, and junk food. - U.S. teens are twice as likely to be overweight as their age-mates in 14 other industrialized countries. - Numbers tripled between 1980 and 2004 - A concern with body image may lead to obsessive efforts at weight control. - ANOREXIA NERVOSA – “Self-Starvation”, is potentially life threatening. It is a distorted body image. The patient is constantly dieting and believe that they are fat when they are actually far from it. It may cause irregularity or cessation of menstruation. These patients are often good students and perfectionists. - BULIMIA NERVOSA – a person with bulimia regularly goes on huge, short-lived eating binges and then may try to purge the high caloric intake through self-induced vomiting, strict dieting or fasting, excessively vigorous exercise, or laxatives, enemas, or diuretics. 5. Use and Abuse of Drugs - SUBSTANCE ABUSE – harmful use of alcohol or other drugs. - SUBSTANCE DEPENDENCE – “addiction”. Can be psychological or physiological - Addictive drugs are especially dangerous because they stimulate parts of the brain that are still developing in adolescence. - Nearly one half of U.S. adolescents have tried illicit drugs by the time they leave high school - Recent trend is abuse of nonprescription cough and cold medications - BINGE DRINKING - consuming five or more drinks on one occasion. - RISK FACTORS: a. Difficult Temerament b.Poor impulse control and sensation seeking c. Biochemical basis and/or family influence d.Genetic predisposition or inconsistent parenting e. Early and persistent behavior patterns f. Peer rejection, alienation, or rebelliousness g.Attitudes toward drug use and early initiation - Common adolescent drugs: alcohol, marijuana, tobacco 6. Death in Adolescence: - 63% of death among adolescents result from motor vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. - Vehicular accidents are the leading cause of death among U.S. teens. - Firearms are the cause of homicide, suicide, and accidental deaths. One third of all injury deaths are caused by a firethm - Suicide is the 4 leading cause of deaths among 15-19 year olds. - Depression and feeling alone is a big problem with suicide 7. Piaget’s Formal Operations Stage - FORMAL OPERATIONS – When adolescents move away from their reliance on concrete, real-world stimuli and develop the capacity for abstract thought. - A capacity for abstract thought - A more flexible way to manipulate information - Usually develops around age 11 - HYPOTHETICAL-DEDUCTIVE REASONING – Involves a methodical, scientific approach to problem solving, and it characterizes formal operations thinking. Involves the ability to develop, consider, and test hypotheses, and the young person can be compared to a scientist exploring a problem. 8. Information Processing (Knowledge): - Changes in the way adolescents’ process information reflect the maturation of the brain’s frontal lobes and may help explain the cognitive advances Piaget described. - STRUCTURAL changes include changes in working memory capacity and increasing the amount of knowledge stored in long term memory. a. Declarative Knowledge: (knowing that…) consists of all the factual knowledge a person has acquired b. Procedural Knowledge: (knowing how to…) consists of all the skills a person has acquired, such as being able to multiply and divide and to drive a car. c. Conceptual Knowledge: (knowing why…) is an understanding of, for example, why an algebraic equation remains true if the same amount is added or subtracted from both sides. - FUNCTIONAL CHANGE – the process for obtaining, handling, and retaining information. a. Mathematical and scientific reasoning b.Improved proficiency in drawing conclusions. 9. Kholberg’s Levels of Moral Reasoning: - Level 1: Preconventional Morality a. Punishment and Obedience b. Instrumental Purpose and Exchange - Level 2: Conventional Morality a. Approval of others: “the Golden Rule” b. Social concern and conscience - Level 3: Postconventional Morality a. Contracts, rights, and democratic laws b. Universal ethical principles 10. Gender Typing: - The process in which a child becomes aware of their gender and thus behaves accordingly by adopting values and attributes of members of the sex that they identify as their own. 11. School Achievement and Self-Efficacy: - Influences on School Achievement: Self-efficacy beliefs, parenting styles, ethnicity, peer influences, gender - SELF-EFFICACY – The belief that one can complete a task - Students high in self-efficacy believe that they can master tasks and regulate their own learning. These students are likely to do well in school. - The school can influence achievement through the quality of the school, whether or not the student likes the school, whether or not the school tailors teaching to the student’s abilities, and whether or not the school helps the student transition to college. 12. Dropping Out of School: - 3.4% of high school students dropped out during 2009- 2010 school year - Students have a high risk of dropping out if they have: a. Low SES b. Are male c. Are Hispanic d. Are students with low active engagement - Average drop-out rates are lower for white students - ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT: the “attention, interest, investment, and effort students expend in the work of school” 13. Vocational Training Programs: - Training that emphasizes skills and knowledge required for a particular job function - Usually used for students that plan to go to college Study Guide for Chapters 9-11 Need to Know for Chapter 9 1.Obesity and body image: - Children grow to about 2 to 3 inches each year between ages 6 and 11 and double their weight during this period. - Girls retain more fatty tissue than boys do. This characteristic lasts through adulthood. - African American boys and girls grow faster than white children. - The average 10-year old weighs 11 more pounds than 40 years ago. - Mexican American girls have more body fat than white girls. - In the U.S. about 17% of children between the ages of 2 and 19 are obese and another 16.5% are overweight. - Boys are more likely to be overweight than girls. - It is most prevalent in Mexican American boys and non- Hispanic black girls. - BODY IMAGE: how one believes one looks. - Body image becomes important early in middle childhood, especially for girls. - Body image can develop into eating disorders in adolescence. - Obesity often results from an inherited tendency aggravated by too little exercise and too much or the wrong kinds of food. Children are more likely to be overweight if they have overweight parents. 2.Illness in Middle Childhood: - ACUTE MEDICAL CONDITIONS: Occasional, short-term conditions, such as infections and warts. - Six or even seven bouts a year with colds, flu, or viruses are typical as germs pass among children at school or play. - CHRONIC MEDICAL CONDITIONS: physical, developmental, behavioral, or emotional conditions that persist for 3 months or more. - 12.8% of U.S. children have or are at risk of developing a chronic medical condition. - ASTHMA: a chronic, allergy-based respiratory disease characterized by sudden attacks of coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing. - U.S. has historically high level of children with asthma. About 12% of children. - Asthma is more likely in boys than in girls and more likely in black children than white children. - Researchers have discovered a gene mutation that increases the risk of developing asthma even though they do not know the real cause. - Air pollutants and tobacco smoke increase the risk as well. - DIABETES: one of the most common diseases in school- aged children. Characterized by high levels of glucose in the blood as a result of defective insulin production, ineffective insulin action, or both. - Type 1 Diabetes is the result of an insulin deficiency that occurs when insulin-producing cells in the pancreas are destroyed. - Accidental injuries are the leading cause of death among school-age U.S. children. - 88% of brain injuries could be prevented by using helmets. - High risks from snowmobiles and trampolines. 3.Cognitive Advances: - CONCRETE OPERATIONS: When a child can use the mental operations, such as reasoning, to solve concrete (actual) problems. Better use of maps and models. - SPATIAL THINKING: A child can use a map or model to help them search for a hidden object and can give someone else directions for finding the object. They can find their way to and from school, can estimate distances, and can judge how long it will take them to go from one place to another. - CAUSE AND EFFECT: A child knows which physical attributes of objects on each side of a balance scale will affect the result (number or objects matter but color does not). However, they do not know which spatial factors make a difference (placement of objects). - CATEGORIZATION: Being able to sort objects into categories, such as shape, color, or both. They know that a subclass (roses) have fewer members than the class that it is part of (flowers). - SERIATION AND TRANSITIVE INFERENCE: Being able to arrange a group of sticks in order, from the shortest to the longest, and can insert an intermediate-size stick into the proper place. Knowing the difference between lengths and which ones are longer than others. - INDUCTIVE AND DEDUCTIVE REASONING: being able to solve both inductive and deductive problems and knows that inductive conclusions (based on particular premises) are less certain than deductive conclusions (based on general premises). Inductive: making observations about particular members of a class of people, animals, objects, or events, and then drawing conclusions about the class as a whole. Ex:// If a neighbor’s dog barks, and another neighbor’s dog barks, then the conclusion that all dogs bark is drawn. Deductive: starts with a general statement about a class and applies it to particular members of the class. Ex:// if the belief is that all dogs bark, and a new dog comes along, it would be reasonable to conclude that the new dog will also bark. - CONSERVATION: A child at age 7 knows that if a clay ball is rolled into a sausage, it still contains the same amount of clay (conservation of substance). That same child at age 9 knows that the ball and the sausage weigh the same. Not until early adolescence will he understand that they displace the same amount of liquid if it is dropped into a glass of water. Horizontal decalage: The inability to transfer knowledge of conservation. Liquids vs. solids - NUMBER AND MATHEMATICS: When a child can count in their head, can add by counting up from the smaller number, and can do simple story problems. - CLASS INCLUSION: the ability to see the relationship between a whole and its parts, and to understand the categories within a whole. 4.Moral Reasoning: - Piaget proposed that moral reasoning develops in three stages. He argued that children move gradually from one stage to another, at varying ages. - THE FIRST STAGE: from ages 2-7 and is based on rigid obedience to authority. Young children are egocentric and cannot imagine that there is more than one way of looking at a moral issue. They believe that rules cannot be bent or changed, that behavior is either right or wrong, and that offense deserves punishment. - THE SECOND STAGE: ages 7 or 8- 10 or 11 and is characterized by increasing flexibility. Children begin to develop their own sense of justice based on fairness or equal treatment for all. They are able to consider more than one aspect of a situation and make more subtle judgements. - THE THIRD STAGE: around age 11 or 12. The belief that everyone should be treated alike gives way to the ideal of equity. According to Piaget, a child of this age might say that a 2-year old who spilled ink on the tablecloth should be held to a less demanding moral standard than a 10- year old. 5.Memory Aides: - SELECTIVE ATTENTION: the ability to deliberately direct one’s attention and shut out distractions. - WORKING MEMORY: involves the short-term storage of information that is being actively processed, like mental workspace. Ex:// if you are asked to compute what 42 x 60 is, you would use your working memory to hold part of the answer while you solved the rest. - METAMEMORY: knowledge about the processes of memory. Can be thought of thinking about memory. - MNEMONICS: a strategy to aid memory (Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally). The most common is the use of external memory aids. - EXTERNAL MEMORY AIDS: prompts by something outside the person. - REHEARSAL: Saying a telephone number over and over after looking it up is a form of rehearsal, or conscious repetition. - ORGANIZATION: mentally placing information into categories (such as animals, furniture, vehicles, and clothing) to make it easier to recall. 6.Psychometric Approach – Intelligence: - WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN (WISC-IV): The most widely used individual test. It is used or ages 6 through 16 and measures verbal and performance abilities, yielding separate scores for each as well as a total space. Pinpoint a child’s strengths and help diagnose specific problems. - OTIS-LENNON SCHOOL ABILITY TEST (OLSAT8): has levels for kindergarten through 12 grade. Children are asked to classify items, show an understanding of verbal and numerical concepts, display general information, and follow directions. - Both heredity and environment influence intelligence. 7.IQ Controversy: - Whether or not IQ tests actually measure intelligence. - BRAIN DEVELOPMENT: Brain imaging research shows a moderate correlation between brain size or amount of gray matter and general intelligence, especially reasoning and problem solving abilities. - SCHOOLING: schooling seems to increase tested intelligence. Children who entered school late, lost as many as 5 IQ points each year. IQ scores also drop during summer vacation. - RACE/ETHNICITY AND SES: leads to claim that tests are unfair to minorities. Gap has narrowed between test scores between white and black children as well as Hispanic American children. The strength of genetic influence itself appears to vary with socioeconomic status. - CULTURE: Behavior seen as intelligent in one culture may seem foolish in another. IQ tests vary between cultures because of this. 8.Gardener’s View on Intelligence: - LINGUISTIC: Ability to use and understand words and nuances of meaning. (writing, editing, translating) - LOGICAL-MATHEMATICAL: Ability to manipulate numbers and solve logical problems. (science, business, medicine) - SPATIAL: Ability to find one’s way around in an environment and judge relationships between objects in space. (architecture, carpentry, city planning) - MUSICAL: Ability to perceive and create patterns of pitch and rhythm. (musical composition, conducting) - BODILY-KINESTHETIC: Ability to move with precision. (dancing, athletics, surgery) - INTERPERSONAL: Ability to understand and communicate with others. (teaching, acting, politics) - INTRAPERSONAL: Ability to understand the self. (counseling, psychiatry, spiritual leadership) - NATURALIST: Ability to distinguish species and their characteristics. (hunting, fishing, farming, gardening, cooking) 9.Pragmatics: - Pragmatics: the social context of language. - Includes both conversational and narrative skills. th - GENDER DIFFERENCES: study in London with 4 graders: when boys and girls worked together, boys used more controlling statements and negative interruptions, whereas girls phrased their remarks in a more tentative, conciliatory way. 10. Congressional Acts on Education: - THE NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND ACT OF 2001: emphasizes accountability, expanded parental options, local control, and flexibility. The intent is to funnel federal funding to research-based programs and practices, with special emphasis on reading and mathematics. Students in grades 3 through 8 are tested annually. 11. Children with Learning Problems: - INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY: significantly subnormal cognitive functioning. Indicated by an IQ of 70 or less. Sometimes referred to as cognitive disability or mental retardation. In most cases, the cause is unknown. - LEARNING DISORDER: The two most commonly diagnosed conditions causing behavioral and learning problems are Learning Disabilities (LD) and attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is a syndrome characterized by persistent inattention and distractibility, impulsivity, low tolerance for frustration, and inappropriate over-activity. - LEARNING DISABILITIES: disorders that interfere with specific aspects of school achievement, such as listening, speaking, reading, writing, or mathematics. Dyslexia is the most commonly diagnosed LD. - DYSLEXIA: developmental disorder in which reading achievement is substantially lower than predicted by IQ or age. - INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES EDUCATION ACT: ensures a free, appropriate public education for all children with disabilities. - INCLUSION PROGRAMS: programs in which children with special needs are included in the regular classroom. (integrating disabled and non-disabled children) 12. Gifted Children: - High general intelligence as shown by an IQ score of 130 or higher. Generally excludes highly creative children, children from minority groups, and children with specific aptitudes. - ENRICHMENT PROGRAMS: broadens knowledge through classroom activities, research activities, and field trips. - ACCELERATION PROGRAMS: speeds up education through grade skipping, fast-paced classes, or advanced classes. 13. Defining and Measuring Creativity: - There are two kinds of thinking: Convergent and Divergent - CONVERGENT: The kind that IQ tests measure. These are looking for a single answer. Chapter 10 Need to Know 1. Self-Concept Development: - Young children’s self-concepts focus on physical attributes, possessions, and global descriptions. At around ages 7 or 8, children reach the third stage of self-concept development. Judgements about the self become more conscious, realistic, balanced, and comprehensive as children from representational systems. - REPRESENTATIONAL SYSTEMS: broad, inclusive, self- concepts that integrate various aspects of the self. - A child can see themselves as “smart” in one subject and “dumb” in another. They can compare their “real self” with their “ideal self”. 2. Erikson’s Developmental Stage/Crisis: - INDUSTRY VS INFERIORITY: Erikson’s fourth stage of psychosocial development. There is an opportunity for growth represented by a sense of industry and a complementary risk represented by inferiority. - If a child is not able to obtain praise from an adult, or lack motivation or self-esteem, they might develop a sense of inferiority. - Developing a sense of industry involves learning how to work hard to achieve goals. 3. Emotional Growth and Prosocial Behavior: - As children get older, they are more aware of their own and other people’s feelings. They can better control their emotions and respond to others’ emotional distress. - By age 7 or 8, children are aware of shame and pride, and they have a clearer idea of the difference between guilt and shame. They also understand their conflicting emotions. - By middle childhood, children are aware of their culture’s rules for acceptable emotional expression. They learn what makes them angry, fearful, or sad and how other people react to displays of these emotions and they learn to behave accordingly. - EMOTIONAL SELF-REGULATION: effortful control of emotions, attention and behavior. - Children low in effortful control tend to become visibly angry or frustrated when interrupted or prevented from doing something they want to do. - Children high in effortful control can hide their emotions at inappropriate times. - Children tend to become more empathetic and more inclined to prosocial behavior in middle childhood. 4. After School Programs: - Generally have low enrollment, low child-staff ratios, and well-educated staff. - Children, especially boys, in after school programs with flexible programming, and a positive emotional climate tend to adjust better and do better in school. 5. Persistent Poverty- Effects: - About 22% of U.S. children up to age 17 lived in poverty in 2010. (39% of black children and 35% of Hispanic children) - Children with single mothers are nearly 5 times more likely to be poor than children living with married couples. - Poor children are more likely than other children to have emotional or behavioral problems. - Their cognitive potential and school performance suffer even more. - Parents who live in poverty are likely to become anxious, depressed, and irritable and thus may become less affectionate and less responsive to their children. They may discipline inconsistently, harshly, and arbitrarily. - Children tend to become depressed, have trouble getting along with others, lack self-confidence, develop behavioral and academic problems, and to engage in antisocial acts. - Effective parenting and family interventions can buffer children from the effects of poverty. 6. Adoptions: - 1.5 million U.S. children under the age of 18 lived with at least one adoptive parent and about 136,000 children are adopted annually. - An estimated 60% of legal adoptions are by stepparents or relatives, usually grandparents. - OPEN ADOPTIONS: when both parties share information or have direct contact with the child. - Challenges associated with adopting a child: integrating the adopted child into the family, explaining the adoption to the child, helping the child develop a healthy sense of self, and perhaps eventually helping the child find and contact the biological parents. - Few significant differences in adjustment between adopted and non-adopted children have been found. - About 17% of adoptions are transracial, most often involving white parents adopting an Asian or Latin American child. 7. Children’s Choice of Peers: - Groups form naturally among children who live near one another or go to school together and often consist of children of the same racial or ethnic origin and similar socioeconomic status. - Children who play together are usually close in age and of the same sex. - PREJUDICE: unfavorable attitudes toward outsiders, especially members of certain racial of ethnic groups. - POSITIVE NOMINATION: children can say who they like to play with, who they like the most, or who they think other kids like the most. - NEGATIVE NOMINATION: children they don’t like to play with, like the least, or think other kids don’t like. - SOCIOMETRIC POPULARITY: the tally that is composed of positive nominations, negative nominations, or no nominations. - SOCIOMETRIC POPULAR CHILDREN: children that receive many positive nominations and few negative nominations. Generally have good cognitive abilities, high achievers, good at solving social problems, are kind and help other children, and are assertive without being aggressive. - SOCIOMETRIC UNPOPULAR CHILDREN: They can be unpopular in two ways: rejected and receive a large number of negative nominations or neglected and receive few nominations of any kind. Some unpopular children are aggressive and others are hyperactive and withdrawn. They do not adapt well to new situations and are insensitive to other children’s feelings. - Children look for friends who are like them in age, sex, and interests. Friendships are associated with positive developmental outcomes. 8. Selman’s Stages of Friendship: - Stage 0: Momentary playmateship (ages 3 to 7) - On this undifferentiated level of friendship, children tend to think only about what they want from a relationship. Most very young children define their friends in terms of physical closeness and value them for material or physical attributes. “She lives on my street” or “He has power rangers” - Stage 1: One-way assistance (ages 4 to 9) – On this unilateral level, a “good friend” does what the child wants the friend to do. “She’s not my friend anymore because she wouldn’t go with me when I wanted her to.” - Stage 2: Two-way fair-weather cooperation (ages 6 to 12) – This reciprocal level overlaps stage 1. It involves give-and-take but still serves many separate self-interests, rather than the common interests of the two friends. “We are friends; we do things for each other” - Stage 3: Intimate, mutually shared relationships (ages 9 to 15) – On this mutual level, children view a friendship as an ongoing, systematic, committed relationship that incorporates more than doing things for each other. Friends become possessive and demand exclusivity. “It takes a long time to make a close friend, so you really feel bad if you find out that your friend is trying to make other friends too” - Stage 4: Autonomous interdependence (beginning at age 12) – In this interdependent stage, children respect friends’ needs for both dependency and autonomy. “a good friendship is a real commitment, a risk you have to take” 9. Aggression and Bullying: - Aggression declines and changes in form during the early school years. After age 6 or 7, children become less aggressive as they grow less egocentric, more empathetic, more cooperative, and better able to communicate. - INSTRUMENTAL AGGRESSION: aggression aimed at achieving an objective. *The hallmark of the preschool period* - HOSTILE AGGRESSION: aggression intended to hurt another person - HOSTILE ATTRIBUTIONAL BIAS: when people quickly conclude that others were acting with ill intent and are likely to strike out in retaliation or self-defense. - Media violence can lead to long-term aggressiveness. - Aggression becomes bullying when it is deliberately, persistently directed against a particular target. - Bullying can be physical, verbal, or emotional. - Bullying can be PROACTIVE: done to show dominance - Or REACTIVE: responding to a real or imagined attack. - CYBERBULLYING: posting negative comments or derogatory photos of the victim on a web site. - Physical bullying decreases with age but other bullying increases. - Bullies are often feared, dominant, respected, and even liked. - Children who have academic problems are more likely to be bullies than victims. 10. Emotional Problems in Middle Childhood: - Children with emotional problems are more likely to have conditions that affect their daily activities and cause them to miss school. - OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANT DISORDER (ODD)- a pattern of defiance, disobedience, and hostility toward adult authority figures lasting at least 6 months and going beyond the bounds of normal childhood behavior. Children with ODD constantly fight, argue, lose their temper, snatch things, blame others, and are angry and resentful. - CONDUCT DISORDER (CD) – a persistent, repetitive pattern, beginning at an early age, of aggressive, antisocial acts, such as truancy, setting fires, habitual lying, fighting, bullying, theft, vandalism, assaults, and drug and alcohol use. - Between 6 and 16 percent of boys and 2 and 9 percent of girls are diagnosed with clinical levels of externalizing behavior or conduct problems. - OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER (OCD) – Children with this disorder may be obsessed by repetitive, intrusive thoughts, images or impulses (often involving irrational fears); or may show compulsive behaviors, such as constant hand-washing; or both. - CHILDHOOD DEPRESSION – a disorder of mood that goes beyond normal, temporary sadness. Depression is estimated to occur in 2% of preschool children and up to 2.8% of children under the age of 13 years. 11. Resilient Children & Protective Factors: - RESILIENT CHILDREN – those who weather circumstances that might blight others, who maintain their composure and competence under challenge or threat, or who bounce back from traumatic events. - PROTECTIVE FACTORS: the two MOST important protective factors that help children and adolescents overcome stress and contribute to resilience are: good family relationships, and cognitive functioning. - Resilient children tend to have high IQs and to be good problem solvers, and their cognitive ability may help them cope with adversity, protect themselves, regulate their behavior, and learn from experience. - Other frequently cited protective factors include the following: the child’s temperament or personality, compensating experiences, and reduced risk. 12. School Phobia/Anxiety: - SCHOOL PHOBIA – an unrealistic fear of going to school - SEPARATION ANXIETY DISORDER – a condition involving excessive anxiety for at least 4 weeks concerning separation from home or from people to whom the child is attached. - SOCIAL PHOBIA OR SOCIAL ANXIETY – extreme fear and/or avoidance of social situations such as speaking in class of meeting an acquaintance on the street. - GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER – anxiety that is not focused on any specific part of the child’s life. These children worry about everything: school grades, storms, earthquakes, and hurting themselves on the playground. Chapter 11 Need to Know 1. Puberty and Sexual Maturity: - PUBERTY: the process that leads to sexual maturity, or fertility- the ability to reproduce. - Physicians in some Western societies see pubertal changes well before age 10. - Puberty involves dramatic biological changes - Puberty begins with hormonal changes: a. First, the hypothalamus releases elevated levels of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) b. Next, the increased GnRH triggers a rise in lutenizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). c. In girls, increased levels of FSH lead to the onset of menstruation. d. In boys, LH initiates the release of two additional hormones: testosterone and androstenedione. - Puberty can be broken down into two basic stages: adrenarche and gonadarche. a. Adrenarche occurs between ages 6 and 8. Adrenal glands secrete increasing levels of androgens, most notably dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). b. Gonadarche is marked by the maturing of the sex organs, which triggers a second burst of DHEA production. - PRIMARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS: the organs necessary for reproduction. In the female, the sex organs include the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, clitoris, and vagina. In the male, they include the testes, penis, scrotum, seminal vesicles, and prostate gland. During puberty, these organs enlarge and mature. - SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS: physiological signs of sexual maturation that do not directly involve sex organs, for example, the breasts of females and the broad shoulders of males. - The first external signs of puberty typically are breast tissue and pubic hair in girls and enlargement of the testes in boys. - ADOLESCENT GROWTH SPURT: a rapid increase in height, weight, and muscle and bone growth that occurs during puberty. Begins between ages 9 ½ and 14 ½ and in boys between 10 ½ and 16. Typically lasts about 2 years. - SPERMARCHE- the first ejaculation. Occurs at an average age of 13. - MENARCHE – the first menstruation. Occurs fairly late from ages 10 to 16 1/2. - SECULAR TREND – a trend that spans several generations. 2. Adolescent Brain: - Dramatic changes in brain structures involved in emotions, judgement, organization of behavior, and self- control take place between puberty and young adulthood. - Risk-taking appears to result from the interaction of two brain networks: a socio-emotional network and a

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Chapter 1, Problem 181 is Solved
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Textbook: Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach
Edition: 8
Author: Yunus A. Cengel
ISBN: 9780073398174

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Consider the system shown in Fig. P181. If a change of 0.7