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Daytona International Speedway in Florida has 37,000 more

Intermediate Algebra | 6th Edition | ISBN: 9780321785046 | Authors: Elayn El Martin-Gay ISBN: 9780321785046 180

Solution for problem 2.2.55 Chapter 2.2

Intermediate Algebra | 6th Edition

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Intermediate Algebra | 6th Edition | ISBN: 9780321785046 | Authors: Elayn El Martin-Gay

Intermediate Algebra | 6th Edition

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Problem 2.2.55

Daytona International Speedway in Florida has 37,000 more grandstand seats than twice the number of grandstand seats at Darlington Motor Raceway in South Carolina. Together, these two race tracks seat 220,000 NASCAR fans. How many seats does each race track have? (Source: NASCAR)

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FCNS 230 Study Guide Exam 2 Chapter 5-9 Chapter 5:  Know definitions of proximodistal, Cephalocaudal, lateralization, plasticity, Patterns of Growth  Cephalocaudal: Earliest growth always occurs at the top—the head—with physical growth and feature differentiation gradually working from top to bottom • Examples: shoulder to middle trunk  Proximodistal: Growth starts at center of body and moves toward extremities • Examples: hand control before finger control  Lateralization: Specialization of function in one hemisphere of the cerebral cortex or the other (the brain)   Know influences on early growth  The brain demonstrates both flexibility and resilience  Neuroscientists believe that what wires the brain is repeated experience  Neuroconstructivist view: Biological processes and environmental conditions influence the brain’s development  The brain has plasticity and is context-dependent  Brain development is closely linked with cognitive development  Main cause of infant/toddler death  Infant stops breathing, usually during night, and dies without apparent cause  Highest cause of infant death in U.S.  Highest risk is 2 to 4 months of age  Infants should be placed on their backs in the prone position  Less common in bedroom with fan, for infants who breastfeed and for infants who use a pacifier  Habituation and dishabituation  Habituation Decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations of the stimulus  Dishabituation: Recovery of a habituated response after a change in stimulation  Tracking - Applied to vision and hearing  High-amplitude sucking, videos, computers  Visual cliff  Visual acuity and color in newborn improves over time  Perceiving patterns – patterns preferred  Perceptual constancy – size, shape  Size constancy – an object remains the same even though the retinal image of the object changes as you move toward or away from the object  Shape constancy – an object's shape remains the same even though its orientation to us changes  Depth perception  ‘Visual cliff’ study and visual expectations • Infants will not crawl over the edge • Their perception of affordances let them crawl or not crawl over the cliff  Binocular cues by age 3 to 4 months  Reflexes, operant and classical conditioning (including punishment and reinforcement)  Rooting: Reaction to cheek/mouth being touched; in response they their turn head  Sucking: Automatic sucking of object in mouth  Moro: Startle response causes back arching, extension and then rapid closing of arms and legs  Babinski: Toes fan, foot arches when sole is stroked  Grasping: When something touches their palm  Classical conditioning - Pairing of new stimulus to condition a response  Operant conditioning - Consequences of behavior produce changes in the probability of that behavior reoccurring  Gross and fine motor skills  Gross Motor Skills o Milestones for large muscle activities  Development of posture  Learning to walk  First year milestones - walks easily  Development in second year  Increasing independence  Skilled and mobile: pull toys, climb stairs  Natural exercise: walk quickly, run stiffly o Fine Motor skills that involve finely tuned movements  Finely tuned (coordinated) movements  Perceptual-motor coupling necessary  Finger dexterity (thumb and forefinger)  Two types of grasps: Palmar and Pincer  Wrists and hands turn and rotate more  Experience and exercise have impact  Grasps  Palmar- griping of objects with the whole hand  Pincer- grasp of small object with thumb and forefinger  When do infants turn their heads to sound 3 months Chapter 6  Piaget’s stages  Simple reflexes- birth to 1 month  First habits and primary circular reactions- 1 to 4 months  Secondary circular reactions- 4 to 8 months  Coordination of secondary circular reactions- 8 to 12 months  Tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity- 12 to 18 months  Internalization of schemes- 18 to 24 months  Intermodal perception, centration, object permanence, visual cliff  Object permanence occurs earlier o Distinguishing objects by 3 to 4 months o A-not-B error: infant selects familiar hiding place (A) rather than new hiding place (B)  Centration: the tendency to focus on one salient aspect of a situation and neglect other, possibly relevant aspects  Visual Cliff: Gibson and Walk (1960) hypothesized that depth perception is inherent as opposed to a learned process. To test this, they placed 36 infants, 6 to demonstrate that by the time babies are between 6 and 14 months old they are capable of depth perception  intermodal perception, babies can integrate information from two different senses, such as the sounds that go with a certain sight. This finding challenges the commonly held view that infants begin life experiencing totally unrelated sensations in each sensory system.  Adaptation, accommodation  Adaptation - adjusting to new environments • Mental structures help us adapt to our environment • Children actively construct their own cognitive worlds  Accommodation: Piagetian concept of adjusting schemes to fit new information and experiences  Vygotysky and basics of his theory including what is important in his theory, ZPD, Scaffolding  Social constructionist approach o Focuses on cognitive development o Children - Active construction of knowledge and understanding by actions and interactions  Depends on tools used by society  Shaped by cultural context  The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) o The range of tasks that are too difficult for children to achieve alone but that can be achieved with guidance and assistance of adults or more skilled children o Lower limit - What child achieves independently o Upper limit - What can be achieved with assistance of able instructor o Cognitive skills in process of maturing  Scaffolding: Changing level of support over course of teaching session to fit child’s current performance level  Language and thought o Children use speech for solving tasks and social communication  Plans, monitors, guides behavior  Private speech: self-regulation o All mental functions have external, social origins  Language perspectives Chapter 7:  Emotions, primary emotions  Emotion: Feeling or affect of importance  Primary emotions: present in humans, animals  Appear in first 6 months of life  Examples: surprise, anger, joy, sadness, fear and disgust  Self-conscious emotions: self-awareness  Appear after age 18 months  Examples: embarrassment, jealousy, empathy, pride, shame, and guilt  Responses to reactions of others  Research controversy on the onset of an emotion  Example: jealousy in infants  Attachment, self-conscious emotions, emotional self- regulation  Self-conscious emotions: self-awareness  Appear after age 18 months  Examples: embarrassment, jealousy, empathy, pride, shame, and guilt  Responses to reactions of others  Research controversy on the onset of an emotion  Example: jealousy in infants  Emotional Regulation o During first year: o Gradual control of arousal to adapt, reach goal o Self-soothing in early infancy o Redirected attention, self-distraction later in infancy o Language defines emotions by age 2 o Contexts affect emotional regulation o Caregiver responses matter, infant adapts  Erikson stages  Erikson’s trust-versus-mistrust: o Infants experience world as either positive or negative outcomes; continuity not guaranteed  Sense of self:  Real or imagined; motivating force in life  Self-recognition: about 18 months of age  The mirror technique  The developing sense of self  Separation: movement away from the mother  Individuation: development of self  Independence  Erikson’s 2 ndstage - Autonomy versus shame and doubt  Self-determination and pride or overcontrol creates shame and doubt  Bowlby stages  Bowlby - ethological view: attachment is innate predisposition o Develops in a series of phases o Attachment: 4 phases of social cognition  Phase 1: birth to 2 months – drawn to humans  Phase 2: 2 to 7 months– focus on one person  Phase 3: 7 to 24 months – actively seek regular contact with caregivers  Phase 4: From 24 months on – aware of others’ goals, feelings, actions  Ainsworth types of attached children  Mary Ainsworth’s Strange Situation  Measures attachment by observation  Infant experiences series of contexts  3 reactions to new situation  Secure: Positive, confident exploration  Insecure-avoidant: Little interaction with caregiver, no distress  Insecure-resistant: Clings to caregiver and then resists  Insecure disorganized: Disoriented and dazed  Temperament, goodness of fit, bidirectionality  Crying: most important mechanism for communication  Basic - Rhythmic, incited by hunger  Angry - Excess air in vocal cords  Pain - Louder, high pitched, sudden, longer  Social smile  Reflexive - Natural, occurs 1 month after birth  Social - Response to external stimuli, occurs as early as 4 to 6 weeks  When does stranger anxiety show up  Stranger anxiety: Fear, wariness of strangers o Intense from 9 to 12 months o Not shown by all; intensity affected by social context and stranger behavior/traits  Types of child temperament  Chess & Thomas’ classification: 3 basic types or clusters  Easy child: Positive mood, easily adapts  Difficult child: Reacts negatively and cries frequently, resists change, shows irregular behaviors  Slow-to-warm-up child: Low mood intensity, low activity level, somewhat negative  Kegan’s behavioral inhibition  Sociable, extroverted, bold child  Shy, subdued, timid child  Inhibited to unfamiliar; shows anxiety, distress at about 7 to 9 months of age  Inhibition intensity varies  Considerable consistency into early childhood  Rothbart and Bates’ Classification o Extraversion/surgency - Positive, impulsive  Kegan’s uninhibited child fits here o Negative affectivity - Easily distressed o Kegan’s inhibited child fits here o Effortful control - Self-regulating, control varies  Rouge test  Social referencing, transitional object  Social referencing: Ability to ‘read’ emotional cues of others to help determine how to act in a specific situation  Affects infants’ perceptions of others  Transitional Object: an object used to provide psychological comfort ex. Security blanket Chapter 8:  Average growth  Height and weight  Growth is slower  Average child grows 2½ inches and gains between 5 and 7 pounds a year during early childhood • Growth patterns vary individually • Heredity has an influence • Boys gain muscle; girls gain fatty tissue  Grows slower in childhood than in infancy • 75% of adult size by age 3 • 95% of adult volume by age 6 • Brain and head: fastest growing parts of body  Body weight of 5-year-old is 1/3 of adult size  Density of synapses peaks at 4 years of age  True episodic memory may begin  Self-awareness may develop here  Main cause of death for children  Preventing childhood injuries o Child more at risk for serious injury and accidents o Motor vehicle accidents leading cause of death in young children o Accidents - Leading cause of death in children  Most can be prevented using safety laws  Safety linked to behaviors, environment, family  Most accidents occur in the home Chapter 9:  Piaget stage  Limits of preoperational thought and be able to recognize an example  ZPD and scaffolding  Talk for self and private speech  Cardinality (count one group and then another) and ordinality (1 is less than 2 which is less than 3 etc.)

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Chapter 2.2, Problem 2.2.55 is Solved
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Textbook: Intermediate Algebra
Edition: 6
Author: Elayn El Martin-Gay
ISBN: 9780321785046

The answer to “Daytona International Speedway in Florida has 37,000 more grandstand seats than twice the number of grandstand seats at Darlington Motor Raceway in South Carolina. Together, these two race tracks seat 220,000 NASCAR fans. How many seats does each race track have? (Source: NASCAR)” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 43 words. This full solution covers the following key subjects: . This expansive textbook survival guide covers 90 chapters, and 8410 solutions. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 2.2.55 from chapter: 2.2 was answered by , our top Math solution expert on 12/23/17, 04:59PM. Since the solution to 2.2.55 from 2.2 chapter was answered, more than 557 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. Intermediate Algebra was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321785046. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Intermediate Algebra, edition: 6.

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