Solutions for Chapter 10: Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy

Chemical Principles | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9781305581982 | Authors: Steven S. Zumdahl

Full solutions for Chemical Principles | 8th Edition

ISBN: 9781305581982

Chemical Principles | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9781305581982 | Authors: Steven S. Zumdahl

Solutions for Chapter 10: Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy

Solutions for Chapter 10
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Textbook: Chemical Principles
Edition: 8
Author: Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9781305581982

Chemical Principles was written by Sieva Kozinsky and is associated to the ISBN: 9781305581982. Chapter 10: Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy includes 158 full step-by-step solutions. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Since 158 problems in chapter 10: Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy have been answered, more than 17978 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemical Principles, edition: 8.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • atomic mass unit (amu).

    A mass exactly equal to 1 12th the mass of one carbon-12 atom. (3.1)

  • Avogadro’s number (NA).

    6.022 3 1023; the number of particles in a mole. (3.2)

  • band structure

    The electronic structure of a solid, defining the allowed ranges of energy for electrons in a solid. (Section 12.7)

  • bonding MO

    A low-energy molecular orbital resulting from the constructive interference between atomic orbitals.

  • boranes

    Covalent hydrides of boron. (Section 22.11)

  • carbides.

    Ionic compounds containing the C2 22 or C42 ion. (22.3)

  • conjugate acid

    A substance formed by addition of a proton to a Brønsted–Lowry base. (Section 16.2)

  • critical pressure (Pc).

    The minimum pressure necessary to bring about liquefaction at the critical temperature. (11.8)

  • Endergonic reaction

    A reaction in which the Gibbs free energy of the products is higher than that of the reactants. The position of equilibrium for an endergonic reaction favors starting materials

  • Friedel-Crafts alkylation

    An electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction that installs an alkyl group on an aromatic ring.

  • halogenation

    A reaction that involves the addition of X2 (either Br2 or Cl2) across an alkene.

  • Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction

    A reaction in which a carboxylic acid undergoes a-halogenation when treated with bromine in the presence of PBr3.

  • hydrocarbons

    Compounds composed of only carbon and hydrogen. (Section 2.9)

  • hydrogen bonding

    Bonding that results from intermolecular attractions between molecules containing hydrogen bonded to an electronegative element. The most important examples involve OH, NH, and HF. (Section 11.2)

  • molecular solids

    Solids that are composed of molecules. (Sections 12.1 and 12.6)

  • nonaromatic

    A compound that lacks a ring with a continuous system of overlapping p orbitals.

  • Polar covalent bond

    A covalent bond between atoms whose difference in electronegativity is between approximately 0.5 and 1.9.

  • Steric strain

    The strain that arises when nonbonded atoms separated by four or more bonds are forced closer to each other than their atomic (contact) radii would allow. Steric strain is also called non-bonded interaction strain, or van der Waals strain.

  • Tertiary structure of proteins

    The three-dimensional arrangement in space of all atoms in a single polypeptide chain.

  • vinylic carbocation

    A carbocation in which the positive charge resides on a vinylic carbon atom. This type of carbocation is very unstable and will not readily form in most cases.

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