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Solutions for Chapter 10: Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy

Chemical Principles | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9781305581982 | Authors: Steven S. Zumdahl

Full solutions for Chemical Principles | 8th Edition

ISBN: 9781305581982

Chemical Principles | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9781305581982 | Authors: Steven S. Zumdahl

Solutions for Chapter 10: Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy

Solutions for Chapter 10
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Textbook: Chemical Principles
Edition: 8
Author: Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9781305581982

Chemical Principles was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9781305581982. Chapter 10: Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy includes 158 full step-by-step solutions. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Since 158 problems in chapter 10: Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy have been answered, more than 34365 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemical Principles, edition: 8.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • Allyl

    A !CH2CH"CH2 group.

  • alpha (a) anomer

    The cyclic hemiacetal of an aldose in which the hydroxyl group at the anomeric position is trans to the CH2OH

  • bent

    A type of geometry resulting from an sp3-hybridized atom that has two lone pairs. For example, the oxygen atom in H2O.

  • chirality center

    A tetrahedral carbon atom bearing four different groups.

  • chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

    Compound containing only carbon, chlorine, and fluorine.

  • compound

    A substance composed of two or more elements united chemically in definite proportions. (Section 1.2)

  • coordination compound.

    A neutral species containing one or more complex ions. (23.3)

  • cubic close packing

    A crystal structure where the atoms are packed together as close as possible, and the close-packed layers of atoms adopt a three-layer repeating pattern that leads to a face-centered cubic unit cell. (Section 12.3)

  • Diamagnetic current in NMR

    The circulation of electron density in a molecule in an applied magnetic fi eld.

  • main-group elements

    Elements in the s and p blocks of the periodic table. (Section 6.9)

  • Oxymercuration-reduction

    A method for converting an alkene to an alcohol. The alkene is treated with mercury(II) acetate followed by reduction with sodium borohydride.

  • Phenyl group

    A group derived by removing an H from benzene; abbreviated C6H5! or Ph!.

  • polyurethanes

    Polymers made up of repeating urethane groups, also sometimes called carbamate groups (!N!CO2!).

  • Quaternary (4°) ammonium ion

    An ion in which nitrogen is bonded to four carbons and bears a positive charge

  • Radical cation

    A species formed when a neutral molecule loses one electron; it contains both an odd number of electrons and a positive charge.

  • rem

    A measure of the biological damage caused by radiation; rems = rads * RBE. (Section 21.9)

  • sp2 Hybrid orbital

    A hybrid atomic orbital formed by the combination of one s atomic orbital and two 2p atomic orbitals.

  • Stereochemistry

    The study of three-dimensional arrangements of atoms in molecules

  • unsymmetrical ether

    An ether(R!O!R) where the two R groups are notidentical.

  • Wohl degradation

    A process that involves the removal of a carbon atom from an aldose. The aldehyde group is first converted to a cyanohydrin, followed by loss of HCN in the presence of a base.

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