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Solutions for Chapter 12: Chemistry 11th Edition

Chemistry | 11th Edition | ISBN: 9780073402680 | Authors: Raymond Chang

Full solutions for Chemistry | 11th Edition

ISBN: 9780073402680

Chemistry | 11th Edition | ISBN: 9780073402680 | Authors: Raymond Chang

Solutions for Chapter 12

Solutions for Chapter 12
4 5 0 387 Reviews
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Textbook: Chemistry
Edition: 11
Author: Raymond Chang
ISBN: 9780073402680

Chapter 12 includes 132 full step-by-step solutions. Chemistry was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780073402680. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemistry, edition: 11. Since 132 problems in chapter 12 have been answered, more than 527333 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • allylic bromination

    A radical reaction that achieves installation of a bromine atom at an allylic position.

  • C terminus

    For a peptide chain,the end that contains the COOH group. carbinolamine (Sect. 20.6): A compound containing a hydroxyl group (OH) and a nitrogen atom, both of which are connceted to the same carbon atom.

  • collision model

    A model of reaction rates based on the idea that molecules must collide to react; it explains the factors influencing reaction rates in terms of the frequency of collisions, the number of collisions with energies exceeding the activation energy, and the probability that the collisions occur with suitable orientations. (Section 14.5)

  • cyanides.

    Compounds containing the CN2 ion. (22.3)

  • Cycloaddition reaction

    A reaction in which two reactants add together in a single step to form a cyclic product. The best known of these is the Diels-Alder reaction

  • Electronegativity

    A measure of the force of an atom’s attraction for electrons

  • enantiomer

    A nonsuperimposable mirror image.

  • flagpole interactions

    For cyclohexane, the steric interactions that occur between the flagpole hydrogen atoms in a boat conformation.

  • hexagonal close packing

    A crystal structure where the atoms are packed together as closely as possible. The close-packed layers adopt a two-layer repeating pattern, which leads to a primitive hexagonal unit cell. (Section 12.3)

  • hydrogen deficiency index (HDI)

    A measure of the number of degrees of unsaturation in a compound.

  • intermolecular forces

    The short-range attractive forces operating between the particles that make up the units of a liquid or solid substance. These same forces also cause gases to liquefy or solidify at low temperatures and high pressures. (Chapter 11: Introduction)

  • molecular-orbital theory

    A theory that accounts for the allowed states for electrons in molecules.(Section 9.7)

  • nonionizing radiation

    Radiation that does not have sufficient energy to remove an electron from a molecule. (Section 21.9)

  • Nucleophilic substitution

    Any reaction in which one nucleophile is substituted for another at a tetravalent carbon atom.

  • ortho-para director

    A group that directs the regiochemistry of an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction such that the incoming electrophile is installed at the ortho or para positions.

  • Phasing

    The sign of the wave function at particular coordinates in space, either plus or minus. Phasing is often represented by colors, such as red or blue

  • Photosensitizer

    A compound that absorbs light and transfers the energy to another molecule.

  • Polarimeter

    An instrument for measuring the ability of a compound to rotate the plane of plane-polarized light.

  • Reactive intermediate

    A high-energy species formed between two successive reaction steps, that lies in an energy minimum between the two transition states

  • Reductive amination

    A method for preparing substituted amines by treating an aldehyde or ketone with an amine in the presence of a reducing agent