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CALC Adjacent antinodes of a standing wave on a string are

University Physics | 13th Edition | ISBN: 9780321675460 | Authors: Hugh D. Young, Roger A. Freedman ISBN: 9780321675460 31

Solution for problem 36E Chapter 15

University Physics | 13th Edition

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University Physics | 13th Edition | ISBN: 9780321675460 | Authors: Hugh D. Young, Roger A. Freedman

University Physics | 13th Edition

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Problem 36E

CALC Adjacent antinodes of a standing wave on a string are 15.0 cm apart. A particle at an antinode oscillates in simple harmonic motion with amplitude 0.850 cm and period 0.0750 s. The string lies along the +x-axis and is fixed at x = 0. (a) How far apart are the adjacent nodes? (b) What are the wave-length, amplitude, and speed of the two traveling waves that form this pattern? (c) Find the maximum and minimum transverse speeds of a point at an antinode. (d) What is the shortest distance along the string between a node and an antinode?

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Chapter 9 Tuesday, March 15, 2016 10:50 AM Judicial Independence and the Political Judiciary Tuesday, March 15, 2016 • Courts serve the essential functions of settling disputes and interpreting the law • The most distinctive feature of the federal judiciary is its independence; it is separate from the other branches, and federal judges are appointed for life. • Because judges have preferences about what government should do, courts are fundamentally political institutions The Judicial Process Tuesday, March 15, 2016 • While judges are political actors, they are constrained by institutions and norms just as other political actors are. • The main constraints are the Constitution and the laws, common law, legal precedents, and established judicial procedures • Three Broad Categories of Cases: ○ Criminal law -­‐ disputes or actions involving criminal penalties ○ Civil law -­‐ a system of jurisprudence for settling disputes that do not involve criminal penalties penalties ○ Civil law -­‐ a system of jurisprudence for settling disputes that do not involve criminal penalties ○ Public law -­‐ cases involving the action of public agencies or officials • There are specialized courts for different types of cases The Judicial Process: Precedents and Stare decisis Tuesday, March 15, 2016 11:01 AM • In addition to the law, courts apply legal precedents-­‐ prior cases whose principles are used by judges as the bases for their decisions in present cases • Stare decisis -­‐ Latin for "let the decision stand," is a judicial doctrine that a previous decision by a court should apply as precedent in similar cases until that decision is overruled The Organization of the Court System: Types of Courts Tuesday, March 15, 2016 • There are generally three types of courts ○ Trial court: the first court to hear a criminal or civil case ○ Appellate court: a court that Tuesday, March 15, 2016 • There are generally three types of courts ○ Trial court: the first court to hear a criminal or civil case ○ Appellate court: a court that hears the appeals of trial-­‐court decisions ○ Supreme Court: the highest court in a state or the nation, which primarily hears cases on appeal • They are functionally difference and hierarichally organized The Organization of the Court System: Federal Courts Thursday, March 17, 2016 10:06 AM • Most cases are heard in state courts • Cases are heard in federal court if they involve federal laws, treaties, or the Constitution. • Article III of the Constitution gives the U.S. Supreme Court appellate jurisdiction in most federal cases and gives the Congress power to create lower federal courts • For the most part, Congress has assigned original and appellate jurisdiction to federal courts on a geographic basis: ○ There are 94 judicial districts ○ There are 11 regional appellate circuits, plus the D.C. circuit • There are also several specialized federal courts that have nationwide jurisdiction for particular kinds of cases Caseload in Federal courts that have nationwide jurisdiction for particular kinds of cases Caseload in Federal Courts Thursday, March 17, 2016 10:12 AM • The caseload for federal courts has ballooned in recent decades to more than 450,000 cases per year • About 80% of cases end in district courts • About 2,000 cases from the appellate courts are appealed to the Supreme Court each year • The Supreme court dismisses most of these cases without a ruling on the merits Federal Trial Courts and Federal Appellate Courts Thursday, March 17, 2016 • District judges are assigned on the basis of workload; the busiest federal district court has 28 judges • Circuit courts of appeal have between 3 and 28 permanent judgeships, depending on workload The Supreme Court Thursday, March 17, 2016 • Article III of the Constitution states: "The judicial power of the United States, shall be vested in one Supreme Court." • By law, the Supreme Court has one Chief Justice (now titles Chief Justice • Article III of the Constitution states: "The judicial power of the United States, shall be vested in one Supreme Court." • By law, the Supreme Court has one Chief Justice (now titles Chief Justice of the United States) and eight Associate Justices • The Chief Justice presides over the Court's public sessions, gets to speak first during deliberations, and gets to vote last How Judges are Appointed Thursday, March 17, 2016 • The president nominates federal judges, and the Senate must confirm • Senatorial courtesy: Before nominating a person for federal judgeship, the president finds out whether the candidate's home -­‐state senators support the nomination Supreme Court Appointments Thursday, March 17, 2016 10:21 AM • Since the 1950s, nominees to the Supreme Court have been questioned in depth by the Senate Judiciary Committee • Recent nomination fights have been intensely ideological • Presidents have turns more and more to sitting federal appellate court judges, who have proven records that can be read. Courts as Political Institutions read. Courts as Political Institutions Thursday, March 17, 2016 10:25 AM • Three roles for courts in the political system: ○ Dispute resolution: fact finding and judgment ○ Coordination: providing before-­‐ the-­‐fact incentives and disincentives for behavior ○ Rule interpretation: filling in "gaps" in the law • This is the Institution Principle at work The Power of Judicial Review Thursday, March 17, 2016 • Judicial Review: the power of the courts to declare actions of the legislative and executive branches invalid or unconstitutional • Judicial review is not explicitly granted to the Court in the Constitution but was asserted by the Court arbury v. Madison (1803). Marbury v. Madison (1803) Thursday, March 17, 2016 10:29 AM • William Marbury had been granted a judicial commission, but the commission had not been delivered in time • Marbury sued, and the Court ruled that the portion of the Judiciary Act of 1789 that gave the Court power to compel Madison to deliver the commission was invalid judicial commission, but the commission had not been delivered in time • Marbury sued, and the Court ruled that the portion of the Judiciary Act of 1789 that gave the Court power to compel Madison to deliver the commission was invalid • The Court thus asserted that it had the power to rule a law unconstitutional The Use of Judicial Review Thursday, March 17, 2016 • The Court did not use judicial review much right after Marbury v. Madison, but it has used it quite a bit more frequently in recent decades. • Judicial Review has been used to: ○ Reverse state actions ○ Overturn federal agency actions ○ Challenge presidential action ○ Overturn federal law The Supreme Court in Action: Access Thursday, March 17, 2016 10:35 AM • The Constitution defines judicial power as extending to "cases and controversies" • This means: ○ No advisory opinions ○ Parties must have standing -­‐ the right of an individual or organization to initiate a case ○ The issue must not be-­‐ a case that no longer requires resolution • Beyond those rules, the Court chooses to hear cases based on the preferences and priorities of the justices • The justices' clerks pore over all petitions and generate memos on the various cases, and any one justice can ask that a case be considered for a hearing hear cases based on the preferences and priorities of the justices • The justices' clerks pore over all petitions and generate memos on the various cases, and any one justice can ask that a case be considered for a hearing • The nine justices meet to decide which cases will be grantedc ertiorari • Writ of certiorari formal request by an appellant to have the Supreme Court review a decision of a lower court • Generally,c ertiorari is granted when: ○ There are conflicting decisions by two or more lower courts ○ There are conflicts between a lower court decision and a previous Supreme Court decision Controlling the Flow of Cases Thursday, March 17, 2016 10:43 AM • Solicitor General: the Solicitor General (an officer in the Justice Department) screens out many cases in which the federal government is a party • Law clerks: Each justice has four clerks, drawn from the top law schools in the country, who screen cases for justices and assist in general legal research. The Supreme Court's Procedures Thursday, March 17, 2016 • Parties to the case file briefs ○ Briefs are documents in which the attorneys explain why the Court should rule in their favor ○ Amicus curiae briefs are filed by those who are interested in the case but not • Parties to the case file briefs ○ Briefs are documents in which the attorneys explain why the Court should rule in their favor ○ Amicus curiae briefs are filed by those who are interested in the case but not a party to it • Oral arguments come next ○ Attorneys appear before the Court, present their arguments, and answer questions from the justices • Conference ○ The case is discussed and a preliminary vote taken • Opinion writing ○ One of the members of the majority is assigned the task of writing a majority opinion ○ Drafts of the opinion are circulated, and changes may be suggested ○ Justices in the minority write one or more dissents Judicial Decision Making: Restraint vs. Activism Thursday, March 17, 2016 10:50 AM • Judicial Restraint: the judicial philosophy whose adherents refuse to go beyond the text of the Constitution in interpreting its meaning • Judicial Activism: the judicial philosophy that posits that the Court should see beyond the text of the Constitution or a statute to consider the broader societal implications for its decisions Judicial Decision Making: Political Ideology Thursday, March 17, 2016 10:52 AM Judicial Decision Making: Political Ideology Thursday, March 17, 2016 10:52 AM • The extent of the liberal or conservative attitudes of justices plays an important role in their decisions • Activism and restraint are not synonymous with liberal and conservative The Expanding Power of the Judiciary Thursday, March 17, 2016 10:54 AM • During the 1960s and 1970s, the courts liberalized standing-­‐ more could sue • The courts also broadened the scope of relief by allowing fo-­‐action lawsuits • The courts also began to employ structural remedies, sometimes retaining control of a case until a mandate was implemented • All are expansions of judicial power

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Chapter 15, Problem 36E is Solved
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Textbook: University Physics
Edition: 13
Author: Hugh D. Young, Roger A. Freedman
ISBN: 9780321675460

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CALC Adjacent antinodes of a standing wave on a string are