Why is it impossible for the isotope 2 2He to exist?
SOC 150 Study Guide For 3 Test Format: 1. Terms and Definition: Stratification: Ranking system for groups of people that perpetuates unequal rewards and life chances in society The 4 main forms of stratification are: 1) Slavery: Economic form of inequality in which some people are legally the property of others 2) Caste System: Stratification system based on heredity, with little movement allowed across strata 3) Feudal/ Estate system: Stratification system in which high status groups own land and have power based on noble birth Some ways to achieve lands: Settling of new lands, Takeover through war, Inheritance, Marrying to the wealthy family 4) Social Class system: Stratification system based on social class. (in most industrialized societies) Class Distinctions: 1) Upper Class: In a society stratified by social class, a group of people who have high income and prestige and who own vast amounts of property and other forms of wealth, such as owners of large corporations, top financiers, rich celebrities and politicians, and members of prestigious families 2) Middle Class: In a society stratified by social class, a group of people who have an intermediate level of wealth, income, and prestige, such as managers, supervisors, executives small business owners, and professionals. 3) Working Class: In a society stratified by social class, a group of people who have a low level of wealth, income, and prestige, such as industrial and factory workers, office workers, clerks, and farm and manual laborers 4) Poor: In a society stratified by social class, a group of people who work for minimum wage or are chronically unemployed Prestige: The respect and honor given to some people in society Power: The ability to affect decisions in ways that benefit a person or protect his or her interests. Social mobility: Movement of people or groups from one class to another Goodluck with the test. Means of production : Land, commercial enter prises, factories, and wealth that form the economic basis of class societies Socioeconomic status: prestige, honor, respect, and life style associated with different positions or groups in society Working poor: Employed people who consistently earn wages but do not make enough to survive Near-poor: Individuals or families who whose earnings are between 100% and 125% of poverty line Poverty: Absolute Poverty: Inability to afford the minimal requirements for sustaining a reasonably healthy existence Relative Poverty: Individuals’ economic position compared to the living standards of the majority in the society Poverty line: Amount of yearly income a family requires to meet its basic needs, according to the federal government Poverty rate: Percentage of people whose income falls below the poverty line Poverty Threshold Formula: 3 times the cost of subsistence food diet 2. Connecting the two views of stratification from SF and Conflict theorists: 1) Structural Functionalist view of stratification (Ranking system) 1. All societies are stratified so it must be beneficial 2. Stratification creates social order 3. Those who are more talented, and spend more time learning skills should be financially rewarded, otherwise they wouldn’t want to do the jobs 4. It’s not just the job function that is important, it is the number of people who can do it. So you are stuck if you don’t have the ability to go further up the triangle. 2) Conflict Theorist view of stratification: 1) Stratification is not what maintains social order. The farther apart in levels of stratification the more unstable it makes society 2) System of stratification serves people with power/ resources. 3) Serves only the interests of powerful/ wealthy. 4) Allocation of resources- creates false shortages- hurts everyone of the 95% bottom. (a social dilemma) 5) Economic and political systems need maintain the stratified society to work Goodluck with the test. 6) Success = degree of stratification, more inequality, more closed system = lack of power to change. Contrasting: SF view: Once you are in the “proper” position, it motivates people to produce/ to work Conflict theory view: People are “locked” into positions based on system constraints- why do they work within the system. Herbert Ganz: A SF theorist looked at 4 classes and says they must be necessary. Function of the poor: 1) Provide low wage pool (stabilizes the social system) 2) Provide voluntary army (good benefit, schooling)-> go for lower class recruit 3) Work in occupation that serve the very poor (social workers are working poor, by supporting the poor, you are keeping them poor) 4) Reminder of the American Dream For ex: someone who is very poor got rich, anyone who wants to go down is deviant 5) Scape goats middle class blames the poor class, not the top people. SF focus on system positions: value/reward. NOT HOW individuals came to occupy them. 3. The time line of races and ethics: (by every decade) 1) Late 1600’s – Early 1700’s: Emergence of Black Captive Literature 1650-1700’s: Slavery: 1650-1700: 500,000 | 1700-1750: 2.3 mil | 1750-1800: 3.8 mil slaves 1767: Linnaeus taxonomy Binomial nomendature: 1. Eutopeans : White – Caucasians 2. Asiaticus : Sallow 3. Americanus: Reddish 4. Africans : Black 5. Monstrous: Human subspecies 6. Primates 1776: Blumenback “on the natural variety of mankind” DEgredation theory Science of craneology Goodluck with the test. 1. Caucasian: White 2. Mongolians: Yellow 3. Malayan: Brown 4. Americans: Red 5. Etheopians: Black 1781: Thomas Jefferson 1790: First census 2) 1800-1900: Is human biological difference Is it racial variation or different species 1820’s-1830’s” Samuel Morton: measures brain capacity Highest Brain Capacity: 1. Europeans: 2. Chinese 3. SE Asians / Polynesians 4. American Indians 5. Africans / Australians 1831: Darwin / 1859 “Origin of species” | John Spencer “survival of the fittest” 1843: Charles Pickering Head National Academy of Science 1845: Manifest destiny – by John O’ Sullivan -> Fredrick Douglas challenges ideas of Race 1854: Chief Justice Charles Murry – California 1857: Dred Scott Decisions 1865: Civil war ends 1883: Birth of Eugenics movement/ Francis Galton (Darwin’s cousin) =-> Heritable traits and culture crates differences 1887: Beginning of Segregation 1. Japanese 2. Chinese 3. White 4. Black 5. Mulatto ½ Black 6. Quadroon ¼ Black 7. Octoroon / Terceroon : 1/8 black Goodluck with the test. 3) 1900’s Scientific community focused on measuring intelligence: Important to establish: Immigration Policy (limits and quotas) Segregation of public education Military service WW I / WW II 1903 St. Louis World’s Fair- 20 Million 1906 Naturalization Act- Whites and Blacks can be citizen 1905-1908 First Intelligence Test administered by Stanford Binet “Intelligence based on the accumulation of knowledge” – Justifies Segregation 1917 Yerkes- convinced military to administer test 2Million volunteers, 2million drafted, 350,000 Africans segregated units Result: Northern European, Southeastern Europeans, Africans 1917 Eugenics movement in U.S, part of the Cultural movement 1922 Supreme Court case challenges Japanese are white, later Indians are white 1930 Virginia Racial Integrity Act becomes U.S standard. One drop rule: If you have one drop of black blood in you, you are Black No intermarriage between races Indians on reservations are the only Indians By 1923 Mexicans : White 1. Indians | Asians | Middle Eastern : Caucasian but not white 2. Africans | One drop rule : Negro 3. Native Indian | reserved Indian : Indians 4. Off reservation : Negro Goodluck with the test. 1930’s census: No mulato classification 1. White: European 2. Negro : Any mistakes of black blood | Native Americans off the reservation 3. Mexican 4. Chinese | Asians 5. Native American 6. Native American (Mix) 1880’s – 1920’s: Predominantly Irish Catholic Immigrants and German Protestants Immigrants 1930’s- 1940’s: Public Housing subsidizes home ownership National Appraisal system =- value to loan eligibility Homes of blacks- devalued In opposites, white communists high rating / low interest 1935 Social Security system- safety net for American workers Excluded- Domestic workers/ Agricultural workers 1935 Wagner Act- unions can exclude non-whites (changed in 1950, but unions were not integrated until 1970) 1930’s-1940’s: Race was geographic/ environment heritable traits -> evolutionary scientist still ranking superior races and characteristics Races include: Irish, Italian, Polish, and African 1967: Mixed marriage laws invalidated in 38 states, 12 states remained “flexible” 1953 watson and Crick discover DNA (a turning point) 1980’s Government creates “Hispanics” category: All people from Spanish speaking countries south of North America “African American” category 1990 First Census to “Self Identify” 1977 Redefinition of Race | Ethnicity categories 1. Race: Black (White is not a race) 2. Hispanic 3. American Indian/ Alaskan Native (Tribal ID) 4. Anglo = White Goodluck with the test. 1996: Pacific Islander | Native Hawaiian added Latino and Hispanics combined 2001: Mexican (then removed because they also identified as white) 2010: “Some other race added” If you wrote Middle Eastern | Native African, counted as white 1989 First Gene identified cystic fibrosis 1994 Bell curve – Hernskin Murry published IQ : 70 % genetic, 30% culture Refuted by Steven J. Gould 2001 Human Genome Mapped Goodluck with the test.