What happens to the volume of water as it is cooled from 3°C to 1°C?
The most of the substances will expand when heated but water has special or peculiar 0 0 behavior. I.e when the water is heated 0 C to 4 C it contracts means its volume decreases as a result of decrease in volume, density increases and above 4 C water 0 expands and it has maximum density at 4 C.T 0 his is due to the need of more space for vibration by the atoms or molecules. The variation of volume w.r.t temperature as shown in graph If the temperature continues to drop and dips below 4°C, the layer close to the surface becomes less dense when approaching the freezing point; it then increases in volume instead of shrinking, and becomes lighter than the water below it at 4°C. Therefore, that cooler layer will float on the surface and will continue to cool until ice is formed. Ice is lighter than water due to its larger volume, and that is why it floats. The water located under the ice below remains at 4°C, except for the layer just below the ice’s surface. That layer will approach the freezing point of 0°C. As it reaches that temperature, it turns into ice as well, making the layer of ice on the surface even thicker. The colder it gets, the thicker and the more solid the layer of ice becomes.