In Exercises 8188, solve for x x 23 1x0
CHAPTER 3 AND 6!!! Chapter 3: Culture and Gender 1. Define what culture is. • Cultural values impact our communication with others • Culture- learned set of enduring values, beliefs, and practices that are shared by an identifiable, large group of people with a common history. 2. Explain how culture influences communication. 3. Define ethnocentrism, cultural relativism, and multiculturalism. Ethnocentrism- The notion that ones own cultures is superior to any other. The way we do things is good and the different way others do things is not so good. (Greek meaning- our nation is the center of all things) Ethnocentrism is a learned belief. There are differences in teaching and learning. China- teachers read to students and student stay quiet unless called upon. Israeli- students wander around classroom and talk during lessons. America- is a range of the two. Core value differences can easily serve as a bed rock foundation for ethnocentrism Cultural relativism- views cultures as merely difference, not deficient. We must respect all cultures and their inherent right to engage in practices, rituals and communication behaviors that maybe appear strange. Multiculturalism- social intellectual movement that promotes the value of diversity as a core principle and insists that all cultural groups be treated with respect and as equals. Multiculturalism incorporates the 5 ethical standards: honesty, respect, fairness, choice and responsibility. 4. Explain the major differences between low-context and high-context communication styles. Direct-low context (don’t need much context to understand) INDIVIDUALIST Indirect- high context (need to know the context to interpret) COLLECTIVIST 5. Explain the major differences between individualistic and collectivistic cultures. Individualist culture- has a “me” consciousness. People are motivated by their own preferences, needs and goals. SELF! Decision making is based on what is best for themselves. Emphasize on a rational assessment of the benefits and drawbacks of relationships. Collectivist culture- has a “we” consciousness. These people downplay personal goals in favor of advancing the goals of a valued group. 6. Explain the major differences between low-power distance and high power-distance cultures. High PD- Vertical- maintain status difference and can’t challenge authority, status controls the communication. Low PD- horizontal- equal power sharing, little attention to differences in status, authority can be challenged, communication occurs across perceived differences. 7. Explain the major differences between feminine and masculine cultures. Gender- social role behavior Gender roles Gender roles are rigid in male culture (girls do this men do this) Stereotypical gender traits Feminine cultures- ppl can take diff. roles Fluid feminine Rigid masculine 8. How does culture influence nonverbal communication Chapter 6: Listening to Others 9. Define listening by its basic elements (comprehending, retaining, and responding). Comprehending- Shared meaning between or among parties in a transaction. Understand speech sounds/phonemes. Speech segmentation (listeners must be able to discern breaks between recognizable words) Ex: I scream, Ice cream Hearing- physiological process of registering sound waves as they hit the eardrum. Particular sounds have no meaning until we construct meaning for them. Retaining- Memory is essential to listening. Information bulimia- cramming info into short-term memory and forgetting it before it moves into long-term memory. Forgetting curve- rate at which we no longer retain information in our memory. (Forget Spanish 3 years after taking it in high school and college.) Remembering everything isn’t a good thing either because it effects relationships You forget because you don’t pay enough attention, you don’t properly organize the information you hear, don’t attach information to any meaningful concept. Responding Without a response you don’t know if the listener is actually listening Nonverbal listeners- make eye contact and use facial expressions Verbal listeners- respond to questions. 10. Define the three types of listening (informational, critical and empathic). Informational Goal Comprehend ideas and info Helpful aid asking good questions Bad habits response shift and interrupting, glazing over, pseudo listening (not really listening just nodding), competitive listening (like to make it about us and us winning) Appropriate response focused response Critical Goal Evaluate ideas and info Assumption cant take info at face value (the an agenda or reason why they want me to understand them) Appropriate response Skepticism (ill believe if you prove it) Bad habits Empathic Goal Understand how someone feels and provide support. Listen to what is most important to speaker Assumption feelings are just as important as facts Appropriate response Support/Personcenteredness (focus on whole message) Bad habits responding to content only not the underlying emotion, interpreting from our fame, offering advice 11. Explain the problems that can interfere with competent informational listening (conversational narcissism, competitive interrupting, glazing over, pseudo-listening, and ambushing). Conversational Narcissism- tendency of listeners “to turn the topics of ordinary conversations to themselves without showing sustained interest in others’ topics” Competitive interrupting- occurs when we dominate the conversation by seizing the floor from others who are speaking. Interrupting- occurs when one person stops speaking when another starts speaking. Glazing over- occurs when listener’s attention wanders and daydreaming occurs. Pseudo-listening- when someone pretends to listen Ambushing- when we listen for weaknesses 12. Explain problems that can interfere with competent critical listening (skepticism, true belief, cynicism). Skepticism- process of listening to claims, evaluating evidence and reasoning supporting those claims and drawing conclusions based on probabilities. (annoying nags, always asking for evidence) True belief- willingness to accept claims without solid reasoning or valid evidence and to hold these belief tenaciously even if a googol of contradictory evidence disputes them. (can’t change his mind or won’t change the subject) Cynicism- nay-saying, fault finding and ridiculing. (a feeling that things will pan out for the worst) 13. Describe the listening response styles associated with empathic listening and non- empathic listening. Evaluate response- makes a judgement about the persons conduct. (‘I wouldn’t respond that way”) Advising response- tells people how they should act. Initial reaction. Interpreting response- we express what we think is the underlying meaning of a situation presented to us. Explain the meaning of the situation to another person. (Like why he always embarrasses you in front of your family is because he is social awkward) Content-only response- comprehends the literal meaning of messages from others but doesn’t recognize the feelings that ride piggyback. (Bf doesn’t care about gf’s fears. He just makes her fear increase) Probing response- seeks more information from others b asking questions. Supporting response- expressions of care, concern, affection, and interest, especially during times of stress or upset. Types of s.r: reassurance, agreement, praise, assistance, validating feelings. Understanding response- requires a listener to check his or her perceptions for comprehension of the speakers message or to paraphrase the message to check accuracy. Confirming responses- they enhance the persons self-esteem and confidence.