 2.1Q: Why is it necessary to include units when reporting scientific meas...
 2.2Q: Why are the number of digits reported in scientific measurements im...
 2.3Q: Why is scientific notation useful?
 2.4Q: If a measured quantity is written correctly, which digits are certa...
 2.5Q: When do zeros count as significant digits and when don't they count?
 2.6Q: How many significant digits are there in exact numbers? What kinds ...
 2.7Q: What limits the number of significant digits in a calculation invol...
 2.8Q: What limits the number of significant digits in a calculation invol...
 2.9Q: How do we determine significant figures in calculations involving b...
 2.10Q: What are the rules for rounding numbers?
 2.11Q: What are the basic SI units of length, mass, and time?
 2.12Q: List the common units of volume.
 2.13Q: Suppose you are trying to measure the diameter of a Fris bee. What...
 2.14Q: What is the difference between mass and weight?
 2.15Q: Using a metric ruler, measure these objects to the correct number o...
 2.16Q: Using a stopwatch, measure each time to the correct number of signi...
 2.17Q: Explain why units are important in calculations.
 2.18Q: How are units treated in a calculation?
 2.19Q: What is a conversion factor?
 2.20Q: Why does the fundamental value of a quantity not change when you mu...
 2.21Q: Write the conversion factor that converts a measurement in inches t...
 2.22Q: Write conversion factors for each.(a) miles to kilometers(b) kilome...
 2.23Q: This book outlines a fourstep problemsolving strategy. Describe e...
 2.24Q: Experienced problem solvers always consider both the value and unit...
 2.25Q: Draw a solution map to convert a measurement in grams to pounds.
 2.26Q: Draw a solution map to convert a measurement in milliliters to gall...
 2.27Q: Draw a solution map to convert a measurement in meters to feet.
 2.28Q: Draw a solution map to convert a measurement in ounces to grams. (1...
 2.29Q: What is density? Explain why density can work as a conversion facto...
 2.30Q: Explain how you would calculate the density of a substance. Include...
 2.33P: Express each number in scientific notation.(a) 0.00000000007461 m (...
 2.34P: Express each number in scientific notation.(a) 0.000000001 s (time ...
 2.35P: Express each number in decimal notation (i.e., express the number w...
 2.37P: Express each number in decimal notation (i.e., express the number w...
 2.38P: Express each number in decimal notation (i.e., express the number w...
 2.39P: Express each number in decimal notation (i.e., express the number w...
 2.40P: Complete the table.Decimal NotationScientific Notation________4.2 ×...
 2.41P: Read each instrument to the correct number of significant figures. ...
 2.42P: Read each instrument to the correct number of significant figures. ...
 2.43P: For each measured quantity, underline the zeros that are significan...
 2.44P: For each measured quantity, underline the zeros that are significan...
 2.45P: How many significant figures are in each measured quantity?(a) 0.00...
 2.46P: How many significant figures are in each measured quantity?(a) 1300...
 2.47P: Correct any entries in. the table that are wrong.QuantitySignifican...
 2.48P: Correct any entries in the table that are wrong.QuantitySignificant...
 2.49P: Round each number to four significant figures.(a) 255.98612(b) 0.00...
 2.50P: Round each number to three significant figures.(a) 10,776.522(b) 4....
 2.51P: Round each number to three significant figures.(a) 10,776.522(b) 4....
 2.52P: Round each number to three significant figures.(a) 65.74(b) 65.749(...
 2.53P: Each number is supposed to be rounded to three significant figures....
 2.54P: Each number is supposed to be rounded to two significant figures. C...
 2.55P: Round the number on the left to the number of significant figures i...
 2.56P: Round the number on the left to the number of significant figures i...
 2.57P: Perform each calculation to the correct number of significant figur...
 2.58P: Perform each calculation to the correct number of significant figur...
 2.59P: Correct any answers that have the incorrect number of significant f...
 2.60P: Correct any answers that have the incorrect number of significant f...
 2.61P: Perform each calculation to the correct number of significant figur...
 2.62P: Perform each calculation to the correct number of significant figur...
 2.63P: Correct any answers that have the incorrect number of significant f...
 2.64P: Correct any answers that have the incorrect number of significant f...
 2.65P: Perform each calculation to the correct number of significant figur...
 2.66P: Perform each calculation to the correct number of significant figur...
 2.67P: Correct any answers that have the incorrect number of significant f...
 2.69P: Perform each conversion.(a) 3 .55 kg to grams(b) 8944 mm to meters(...
 2.70P: Perform each conversion.(a) 155.5 cm to meters(b) 2491.6 g to kilog...
 2.71P: Perform each conversion.(a) 5.88 dL to liters(b) 3 .41 × 10 ?5 g to...
 2.72P: Perform each conversion.(a) 1.08 Mm to kilometers(b) 4.88 fs to pic...
 2.73P: Perform each conversion.(a) 22.5 in. to centimeters(b) 126 ft to me...
 2.74P: Perform each conversion.(a) 78.3 in. to centimeters(b) 445 yd to me...
 2.75P: Perform each conversion.(a) 40.0 cm to inches(b) 27.8 m to feet(c) ...
 2.76P: Perform each conversion.(a) 254 cm to inches(b) 89 mm to inches(c) ...
 2.77P: Complete the table.mkmMmGmTm5.08 × 108 m_________508 Mm_________ __...
 2.78P: Complete the table.sms?snsps1.31 × 10?4 s_________131 ?s___________...
 2.79P: Convert 2.255 × 1010 g to each unit.(a) Kg(b) Mg(c) mg(d) metric to...
 2.80P: Convert 1.88 × 10?6 g to each unit.(a) mg(b) cg(c) ng(d) ?g
 2.81P: A student loses 3.3 lb in one month. How many grams did he lose?
 2.82P: A student gains 1.9 lb in two weeks. How many grams did he gain?
 2.83P: A runner wants to run 10.0 km. She knows that her running pace is 7...
 2.84P: A cyclist rides at an average speed of 24 mi/h. If he wants to bike...
 2.85P: A recipe calls for 5.0 qt of milk. What is this quantity in cubic c...
 2.86P: A gas can holds 2.0 gal of gasoline. What is this quantity in cubic...
 2.87P: Fill in the blanks.(a) 1.0 km2 =_____m2(b) 1.0 cm3 =_____m3(c) 1.0 ...
 2.88P: Fill in the blanks.(a) 1.0 ft2 =_____ in.2(b) 1.0 yd2 =_____ ft2(c)...
 2.89P: The hydrogen atom has a volume of approximately 6.2 ×10?31 m3. What...
 2.90P: Earth has a surface area of 197 million square miles. What is its a...
 2.91P: A house has an area of 215 m2. What is its area in each unit?(a) km...
 2.92P: A classroom has a volume of 285 m3. What is its volume in each unit...
 2.93P: Total U.S. farmland occupies 954 million acres. How many square mil...
 2.94P: The average U.S. farm occupies 435 acres. How many square miles is ...
 2.95P: A sample of an unknown metal has a mass of 35.4 g and a volume of 3...
 2.96P: A new penny has a mass of 2.49 g and a volume of 0.349 cm3. Is the ...
 2.97P: Glycerol is a syrupy liquid often used in cosmetics and soaps. A 2....
 2.98P: An aluminum engine block has a volume of 4.77 L and a mass of 12.88...
 2.99P: A supposedly gold crown is tested to determine its density. It disp...
 2.100P: A vase is said to be solid platinum. It displaces 18.65 mL of water...
 2.101P: Ethylene glycol (antifreeze) has a density of 1.11 g/cm3.(a) What i...
 2.102P: Acetone (fingernailpolish remover) has a density of 0.7857 g/cm3.(...
 2.103P: A thief uses a bag of sand to replace a gold statue that sits on a ...
 2.104P: One of the particles in an atom is the proton. A proton has a radiu...
 2.105P: A block of metal has a volume of 13.4 in.3 and weighs 5.14 lb. What...
 2.106P: A log is either oak orpine. It displaces 2.7 gal of water and weigh...
 2.107P: The density of aluminum is 2.7 g/cm3. What is its density in kilogr...
 2.108P: The density of platinum is 21.4 g/cm3. What is its density in pound...
 2.109P: A typical backyard swimming pool holds 150 yd3 of water. What is th...
 2.110P: An iceberg has a volume of 8975 ft3. What is the mass in kilograms ...
 2.111P: The mass of fuel in an airplane must be determined before takeoff. ...
 2.112P: backpacker carries 2.5 L of white gas as fuel for her stove. How ma...
 2.113P: Honda produces a hybrid electric car called the Honda Insight. The ...
 2.114P: You rent a car in Germany with a gas mileage rating of 12.8 km/L. W...
 2.115P: A car has a mileage rating of 38 mi per gallon of gasoline. How man...
 2.116P: A hybrid SUV consumes fuel at a rate of 12.8 km/L. How many miles c...
 2.117P: Block A of an unknown metal has a volume of 125 cm3. Block B of a d...
 2.118P: Block A of an unknown metal has a volume of 125 cm3. Block B of a d...
 2.119P: You measure the masses and volumes of two cylinders. The mass of cy...
 2.120P: A bag contains a mixture of copper and lead BBs. The average densit...
 2.123P: In 1999, NASA lost a $94 million orbiter because one group of engin...
 2.125P: In 1999, scientists discovered a new class of black holes with mass...
 2.126P: A titanium bicycle frame contains the same amount of titanium as a ...
Solutions for Chapter 2: Introductory Chemistry 5th Edition
Full solutions for Introductory Chemistry  5th Edition
ISBN: 9780321910295
Solutions for Chapter 2
Get Full SolutionsSince 119 problems in chapter 2 have been answered, more than 133695 students have viewed full stepbystep solutions from this chapter. Chapter 2 includes 119 full stepbystep solutions. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Introductory Chemistry, edition: 5. Introductory Chemistry was written by Patricia and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321910295.

antibonding molecular orbital
A molecular orbital in which electron density is concentrated outside the region between the two nuclei of bonded atoms. Such orbitals, designated as s* or p*, are less stable (of higher energy) than bonding molecular orbitals. (Section 9.7)

Arrhenius equation
An equation that relates the rate constant for a reaction to the frequency factor, A, the activation energy, Ea, and the temperature, T: k = AeEa>RT. In its logarithmic form it is written ln k = Ea>RT + ln A. (Section 14.5)

atmospheric pressure.
The pressure exerted by Earth’s atmosphere. (5.2)

Atropisomers
Enantiomers that lack a chiral center and differ because of hindered rotation.

base.
A substance that yields hydroxide ions (OH2) when dissolved in water. (2.7)

Benzyne intermediate
A reactive intermediate formed by belimination from adjacent carbon atoms of a benzene ring and having a triple bond in the benzene ring. The second p bond of the benzyne triple bond is formed by the weak overlap of coplanar 2p orbitals on adjacent carbons.

biodegradable
Organic material that bacteria are able to oxidize. (Section 18.4)

curved arrows
Tools that are used for drawing resonance structures and for showing the flow of electron density during each step of a reaction mechanism.

dipole–dipole force
A force that becomes significant when polar molecules come in close contact with one another. The force is attractive when the positive end of one polar molecule approaches the negative end of another. (Section 11.2)

Double helix
A type of secondary structure of DNA molecules in which two anti parallel polynucleotide strands are coiled in a righthanded manner about the same axis

gauche conformation
A conformation that exhibits a gauche interaction.

Hammond’s postulate
The structure of the transition state for an exothermic step looks more like the reactants of that step than the products. Conversely, the structure of the transition state for an endothermic step looks more like the products of that step than the reactants.

heat of reaction
The heat given off during a reaction.

indicator
A substance added to a solution that changes color when the added solute has reacted with all the solute present in solution. The most common type of indicator is an acid–base indicator whose color changes as a function of pH. (Section 4.6)

net ionic equation
A chemical equation for a solution reaction in which soluble strong electrolytes are written as ions and spectator ions are omitted. (Section 4.2)

Photosensitizer
A compound that absorbs light and transfers the energy to another molecule.

polarizability
The ease with which the electron cloud of an atom or a molecule is distorted by an outside influence, thereby inducing a dipole moment. (Section 11.2)

protium
The most common isotope of hydrogen. (Section 22.2)

steric number
The total of (single bonds + lone pairs) for an atom in a compound.

terminal alkynes
Compounds with the following structure: R!C#C!H
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