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Solved: Is the study of thermodynamics concerned primarily

Conceptual Physics | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321909107 | Authors: Paul G. Hewitt ISBN: 9780321909107 29

Solution for problem 2RCQ Chapter 18

Conceptual Physics | 12th Edition

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Conceptual Physics | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321909107 | Authors: Paul G. Hewitt

Conceptual Physics | 12th Edition

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Problem 2RCQ

Problem 2RCQ

Is the study of thermodynamics concerned primarily with microscopic processes or with macroscopic ones?

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SOMATIC & DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS Somatic Disorders ● Soma = meaning body ○ Overly preoccupied with their health or body appearance ● No identifiable medical condition causing the physical complaints ● Types ○ Conversion disorder = a change in sensory motor function ○ Somatic symptom disorder = recurrent, multiple somatic complaints ○ Body dysmorphic disorder = a preoccupation with an imagined physical defect ○ Illness anxiety disorder = (hypochondriasis) a preoccupation with disease Conversion Disorder ● Involves sensory or motor symptoms ● Not related to known physiology of the body ○ Ex. glove anesthesia ● Conversion symptoms appear suddenly ● Related to stress ● Person shows la belle indifference ● Retain most normal functions, but without awareness of this ability ● Glove anesthesia = numbness in hand ○ Actual damage to ulnar nerve ● Rare condition ● Primarily in females ○ Onset usually in teens ● More common in less educated groups ● Causes ○ Detachment from trauma and negative reinforcement ○ Behavioral view focuses on similarity to malingering ○ Freudian psychodynamic view is still popular ○ The incidence has declined, suggesting a role for social factors ● Treatment ○ Core strategy is attending to the trauma ○ Removal of sources of secondary gain ○ Reduce supportive consequences of talk about physical symptoms Somatic Symptom Disorder ● Recurrent, multiple somatic complaints with no known physical bases ● Extended history before age 30 ● Substantial impairment in social or occupational functioning ● Concerned over the symptoms themselves, not what they might mean ● Symptoms become the person’s identity ● Rare ● Onset usually in teens ● Mostly affects unmarried, low SES women ● Runs a chronic course ● Causes ○ Familial history of illness ○ Relation with antisocial personality disorder ○ Weak behavioral inhibition system ● Treatment ○ No treatment exists with demonstrated effectiveness ○ Reduce the tendency to visit numerous medical specialists ○ Assign “gatekeeper” physician ○ Reduce supportive consequences of talk about physical symptoms Illness Anxiety Disorder ● Preoccupation with having or acquiring a serious illness ● Somatic symptoms are absent or only mild in intensity ● Anxiety and easily triggered alarm about one’s health ● Performance of excessive health-related behaviors (ex. Checking one’s body for signs of illness) ● Once called hypochondriasis ● Strong disease conviction ● Medical reassurance does not seem to help ● Onset at any age and runs a chronic course ● Causes ○ Cognitive perceptual distortions ○ Familial history of illness ● Treatment ○ Challenge illness-related misinterpretations ○ Provide more substantial and sensitive reassurance ○ Stress management and coping strategies Body Dysmorphic Disorder ● Previously known as dysmorphophobia ● Preoccupation with imagined defect in appearance ● Either fixation or avoidance with mirrors ● Suicidal behavior is common ● Often display ideas of reference for imagined defect ● Usually runs a lifelong chronic course ● Seen equally in men and women ○ Onset in early 20s ● Most remain single and seek out plastic surgeons ● Causes ○ Little is known ○ Tends to run in families ○ Similarities with OCD ○ Detachment from trauma and negative reinforcement ● Treatment ○ Same as for OCD ■ Medications provide for some relief ○ Exposure and response prevention ○ Plastic surgery is often unhelpful Theory & Therapy ● The psychodynamic perspective ○ Somatizing as conflict resolution ○ Uncovering conflict ● The behavioral and sociocultural perspectives ○ The sick role ○ Treatment by nonreinforcement ● The cognitive perspective ○ Over Attention to the body ○ Treatment = challenging faulty beliefs ● The biological perspective ○ Genetic studies ○ Brain dysfunction ○ Drug treatment Dissociative Disorders ● Involves severe alterations of detachments in identity, memory, or consciousness ● Variations of normal depersonalization and derealization experiences ● Depersonalization = distortion is perception of reality ● Derealization = losing a sense of the external world ● Types ○ Amnesia = the inability to recall important personal info ○ Fugue = how seen as a severe form of dissociative amnesia ○ Identity disorder = (DID) involves the presence of two different identities (alters) Dissociative Amnesia ● Usually of a traumatic or stressful nature ● Beyond ordinary forgetting ● Symptoms not attributable to a substance or medical condition ● Usually begin in adulthood (and fugure) ● Both are mostly seen in females ● Causes ○ Trauma and stress ● Treatment ○ Usually get better without treatment ○ Most remember what they have forgotten Dissociative Identity Disorder ● Involves adoption of several new identities (as many as 100) ○ Identities have unique sets of behaviors, voice, and posture ● Unique aspects ○ Alters = the different identities or personalities ○ Host = the identity that seeks treatment ○ Switch = often instantaneous transition from one personality to another ● Average # of identities = 15 ● Ratio of women to men = 9 to 1 ● Onset almost always in childhood ● High comorbidity rates ○ A lifelong chronic course ● Causes ○ Consciousness is normally a unified experience, consisting of cognition, emotion, and motivation ○ Stress may alter the way in which memories are sorted ■ Resulting in amnesia or fugue ○ Almost all patients have histories of horrible child abuse ■ Most are also highly suggestible ○ Believed to be a mechanism to escape from impact of trauma ○ Closely related to PTSD ● Treatment ○ Psychoanalytic therapy seeks to lift repressed memories ○ Hypnosis ○ Goal of therapy ■ Integrate the several personalities ■ Help each alter understand that he’s a part of one person ■ Identify and neutralize cues/triggers that provoke memories of trauma/dissociation ■ Treat the alters with fairness and empathy Diagnostic Considerations ● Separating real problems from faking ○ The problem of malingering = deliberately faking symptoms ● Related conditions = factitious disorders ○ Factitious disorders by proxy ● False memories and recovered memory syndrome ● Well established treatments are generally lacking

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Chapter 18, Problem 2RCQ is Solved
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Textbook: Conceptual Physics
Edition: 12
Author: Paul G. Hewitt
ISBN: 9780321909107

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Solved: Is the study of thermodynamics concerned primarily