×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to Chemistry - Textbook Survival Guide
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to Chemistry - Textbook Survival Guide

Already have an account? Login here
×
Reset your password

Solutions for Chapter 4: Atoms and Elements

Introductory Chemistry | 5th Edition | ISBN: 9780321910295 | Authors: Nivaldo J Tro

Full solutions for Introductory Chemistry | 5th Edition

ISBN: 9780321910295

Introductory Chemistry | 5th Edition | ISBN: 9780321910295 | Authors: Nivaldo J Tro

Solutions for Chapter 4: Atoms and Elements

Solutions for Chapter 4
4 5 0 327 Reviews
28
3
Textbook: Introductory Chemistry
Edition: 5
Author: Nivaldo J Tro
ISBN: 9780321910295

Summary of Chapter 4: Atoms and Elements

Atoms are incredibly small. A single pebble from the shoreline contains more atoms than you could ever count. The number of atoms in a single pebble far exceeds the number of pebbles on the bottom of San Francisco Bay. To get an idea of how small atoms are, imagine this: If every atom within a small pebble were the size of the pebble itself, the pebble would be larger than Mount Everest.

Since 117 problems in chapter 4: Atoms and Elements have been answered, more than 1710655 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. Chapter 4: Atoms and Elements includes 117 full step-by-step solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Introductory Chemistry, edition: 5. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Introductory Chemistry was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321910295.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • Absorbance (A)

    A quantitative measure of the extent to which a compound absorbs radiation of a particular wavelength. A 5 log (I0/I ) where I0 is the incident radiation and I is the transmitted radiation

  • acetal

    A functional group characterized by two alkoxy (OR) groups connected to the same carbon atom.Acetals can be used as protecting groups for aldehydes or ketones.

  • carbides.

    Ionic compounds containing the C2 22 or C42 ion. (22.3)

  • Confi gurational isomers

    Isomers that differ by the confi guration of substituents on an atom. Refers to the arrangement of atoms about a stereocenter

  • diamagnetic anisotropy

    An effect that causes different regions of space to be characterized by different magnetic field strengths.

  • Enantiomeric excess (ee)

    The difference between the percentage of two enantiomers in a mixture

  • haloform reaction

    A reaction in which a methyl ketone is converted into a carboxylic acid upon treatment with excess base and excess halogen, followed by aqueous acid.

  • halogenation

    A reaction that involves the addition of X2 (either Br2 or Cl2) across an alkene.

  • Heterocyclic amine

    An amine in which nitrogen is one of the atoms of a ring

  • metal complex

    An assembly of a metal ion and the Lewis bases bonded to it. (Section 23.2)

  • Molecular ion (M1)

    The radical cation formed by removal of a single electron from a parent molecule in a mass spectrometer.

  • Molecular spectroscopy

    The study of which frequencies of radiation are absorbed or emitted by a particular substance and the correlation of these frequencies with details of molecular structure.

  • nonionizing radiation

    Radiation that does not have sufficient energy to remove an electron from a molecule. (Section 21.9)

  • Oil

    When used in the context of fats and oils, a mixture of triglycerides that is liquid at room temperature

  • reaction mechanism

    A detailed picture, or model, of how the reaction occurs; that is, the order in which bonds are broken and formed and the changes in relative positions of the atoms as the reaction proceeds. (Section 14.6)

  • resonance

    A method that chemists use to deal with the inadequacy of bond-line drawings.

  • solvolysis

    A substitution reaction in which the solvent functions as the nucleophile.

  • spin-spin splitting

    A phenomenon observed most commonly for nonequivalent protons connected to adjacent carbon atoms, in which the multiplicity of each signal is affected by the other.

  • structural proteins

    Fibrous proteins that are used for their structural rigidity. Examples include a-keratins found in hair, nails, skin, feathers, and wool.

  • thermosetting resins

    Highly crosslinked polymers that are generally very hard and insoluble.