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Solutions for Chapter 4: Introductory Chemistry 5th Edition

Introductory Chemistry | 5th Edition | ISBN: 9780321910295 | Authors: Nivaldo J Tro

Full solutions for Introductory Chemistry | 5th Edition

ISBN: 9780321910295

Introductory Chemistry | 5th Edition | ISBN: 9780321910295 | Authors: Nivaldo J Tro

Solutions for Chapter 4

Solutions for Chapter 4
4 5 0 390 Reviews
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Textbook: Introductory Chemistry
Edition: 5
Author: Nivaldo J Tro
ISBN: 9780321910295

Since 117 problems in chapter 4 have been answered, more than 437885 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. Chapter 4 includes 117 full step-by-step solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Introductory Chemistry, edition: 5. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Introductory Chemistry was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321910295.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • amines.

    Organic bases that have the functional group —NR2, where R may be H, an alkyl group, or an aromatic group. (24.4)

  • amino acid residue

    The individual repeating units in a polypeptide chain or protein.

  • anti conformation

    A conformation in which the dihedral angle between two groups is 180°.

  • autoionization

    The process whereby water spontaneously forms low concentrations of H+1aq2 and OH-1aq2 ions by proton transfer from one water molecule to another. (Section 16.3)

  • buffer solution.

    A solution of (a) a weak acid or base and (b) its salt; both components must be present. The solution has the ability to resist changes in pH upon the addition of small amounts of either acid or base. (16.3)

  • doping

    Incorporation of a hetero atom into a solid to change its electrical properties. For example, incorporation of P into Si. (Section 12.7)

  • elastomer

    A material that can undergo a substantial change in shape via stretching, bending, or compression and return to its original shape upon release of the distorting force. (Section 12.6)

  • electrolytic cell

    A device in which a nonspontaneous oxidation–reduction reaction is caused to occur by passage of current under a sufficient external electrical potential. (Section 20.9)

  • High-resolution mass spectrometry

    Instrumentation that is capable of separating ions that differ in mass by as little as 0.0001 amu

  • hydrocracking

    A process performed in the presence of hydrogen gas by which large alkanes in petroleum are converted into smaller alkanes that are more suitable for use as gasoline.

  • ideal-gas equation

    An equation of state for gases that embodies Boyle’s law, Charles’s law, and Avogadro’s hypothesis in the form PV = nRT. (Section 10.4)

  • levorotatory, or merely levo or l

    A term used to label a chiral molecule that rotates the plane of polarization of plane-polarized light to the left (counterclockwise). (Section 24.4)

  • Molar absorptivity (e)

    The absorbance of a 1 M solution of a compound.

  • nitration

    An electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction that involves the installation of a nitro group (NO2) on an aromatic ring.

  • osmosis

    The net movement of solvent through a semipermeable membrane toward the solution with greater solute concentration. (Section 13.5)

  • R

    A term used to designate the configuration of a chirality center, determined in the following way: Each of the four groups is assigned a priority, and the molecule is then rotated (if necessary) so that the #4 group is directed behind the page (on a dash). A clockwise sequence for 1-2-3 is designated as R.

  • Resonance in NMR spectroscopy

    The absorption of electromagnetic radiation by a precessing nucleus and the resulting “fl ip” of its nuclear spin from the lower energy state to the higher energy state.

  • rotational motion

    Movement of a molecule as though it is spinning like a top. (Section 19.3)

  • Schiff base

    An alternative name for an imine

  • Wittig reagent

    A reagent used to perform a Wittig reaction.

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