The Periodic Table, Molecules and Molecular Compounds, and Ions and Ionic Compounds (Sections)Write the empirical formula corresponding to each of the following molecular formulas:(a) Al2Br6, (b) C8H10, (c) C4H8O2, (d) P4O10, (e) C6H4Cl2, (f) B3N3H6.
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT PSYCH NOTES 3 Developmental Psychology - Study of how behavior changes over the life span - Methods of study: o Cross- sectional research “snapshot” that analyzes data from people at different age ranges at the same time o Longitudinal research Analyses data from a cohort of people measured at multiple occasions over time Conception - Post Partum Issues in prenatal development - Teratogens o Environmental factors that can exert a negative impact on prenatal development o Links between maternal pregnancy behaviors and later childhood outcomes Intake of chemical compounds that require complex metabolic processing E.g. alcohol, nicotine, illicit drugs, certain medications, certain natural substances o Stress o Embryonic diapause Motor development - Moro reflex o Response to falling backwards - Grasping reflex o Response to stimulation on palm of hand - Stepping reflex o Response to pressure on bottom of foot Social Development - Temperament o Basic emotional style that appears early in development and is largely genetic in origin - Attachment o The strong emotional connection we share with those to whom we feel closest - Type of Attachment o Secure (60%) Becomes upset at mom leaving, comforted when she returns - Insecure-avoidant (15-20%) o Doesn’t care when mom leaves, doesn’t care when she returns o - Insecure-anxious (15-20%) o Upset when mom leaves, both pursues and runs away from her when she returns - Disorganized (5-10%) o Upset when mom leaves, mixed confusing response when she returns Types of Parenting - Permissive o Lack of rewards or punishments for behavior, most lenient - Authoritative o Middle way between permissive and authoritarian, supportive, but with clear boundaries and expectations - Authoritarian o Extremely strict, unsupportive, and less affectionate Identity development throughout the lifespan - Erikson’s theory of identity development Sexual Development - Begins during adolescence - Primary sexual characteristics o Changes to reproductive organs and genitals - Secondary sexual characteristics o Sex- differentiating characteristics that are not directly related to reproduction - Spermarche o Boy’s first ejaculation o Usually around 13 years old - Menarche o Girl’s first menstruation o Usually around 12.5-13.5 years old in the U.S. Moral Development - Moral development throughout the lifespan o Kohlberg’s theory of moral development Stress and Coping - Stress takes a toll on your body - Long term stress can lead to diseases like heart disease, cancer, liver failure (stress related beliefs) - Stressor o Kind of stimulus that elicits a stress response - Stress o Tension, discomfort, or physical symptoms that arise in response to a stressor - Trauma o A long term reaction to a stressor - Stress as a stimuli o Focuses on identifying categories of stressors that affect everyone E.g. breakups, death of loved ones, job loss - Stressfulness of stimuli might depend on context and culture o E.g. college student stressors vs. midlife stressors - Theories of stress o Stress as a transaction Focuses on how people interpret stressful events People determine: 1)whether event is stressful or not 2) ability to cope with stressor o unsolvable stressful situations often lead to emotion focused coping strategies o stress as a response focuses on how people respond to stressful events often basedon laboratory or naturalistic research e.g. why zebras don’t get ulcers often use physiological measures of stress - -minor stress o hassles minor stressors that strain ability to cope often small events that get in the way of immediate goals - biology of stress o general adaptation syndrome proposed by Hans Seyle (1950’s) o pattern of responding to stress with 3 stages alarm resistence o alarms excitement of autonomic nervous system caused by rush of corticosteroids produce physiological feeling of stress o HPA Axis Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal link o Resistance Pathways to cerebral cortex are used to problem (finish slide) o Exhaustion Ability to cope with stressor decreases Can cause damage to organ systems or emotional health in cases on long term stress exposure o Acuse physical cycles Short immediet stressors that affect survival Chronic physical crises Extended immediate stressors that affect survival Issue with human stress -often in response to social or psychological stressors usually do not directly affect survival distant events can produce immediate stress response