CALC? Use the methods of Challenge 8.104 to calculate the x- and y-coordinates of the center of mass of a semi-circular metal plate with uniform density ? and thickness t. Let the radius of the plate be a. The mass of the plate is thus Use the coordinate system indicated in ?Fig. P8.105?.
PSY 340 Chapter 6: Acquiring Language Components of Language Arbitrariness Productivity o Infinite number of combinations are possible from a finite number of parts Regularity o Sentences follow a system of rules (grammar) Semanticity Displacement Theoretical Perspectives on Language Nativist Theory o Idealized grammar o Impoverished input o Rudimentary learning mechanism o Domain specific (encapsulated) Learning Theory o Real language is messy o Rich input o Powerful learning mechanism o Domain General mechanisms Critical Period Period of language learning that is suggested to be biologic determinants of acquiring language Statistically regular patterns in learning native language Mass Exposure to language: makes it impossible to rule out learning Tomasello (2006) Children 2-3 hearing 5000-7000 words a day Argues for repetition helping toddlers learn statistically regular patterns of native language We have impressive learning ability Saffran experiment(1996) 8 month olds can track transitional probabilities between syllables paditobukuboktidofo How quickly do we learn language Milestones o Reduplicated, canonical babbling (6-7) o Common words (6-9) o Jargon babbling (9-18) o First words (9-15) o Vocab explosion (18-24) o Two-word combinations (24) o Complex sentences (30-48) Aspects of Language Phonology o Perceiving speech is hard because we don’t break in speech o Prototypes and Language CATEGORICAL PERCEPTION Language occurs on continuum, we only LEARN phoneme divisions through our conditioned discrimination between sounds /d/-/t/ contrast o Critical period of perception of phonemes, (8-10 months they lose ability to discriminate NON NATIVE phonemes) Synaptic pruning More attuned to native language o Starts out as domain general, categorical perception is NOT encapsulated **Encapsulation: a process specialized for a specific purpose, encapsulated processes are domain specific (processing is specific for a particular domain of perception such as speech or vision) o Production Stages: Cooing: vowels only Babbling: repeated syllables Intersubjectivity: interacting to produce shared meaning (infants who don’t have the words to make requests use gestures) Semantics Early vocabulary Comprehension Precedes production Children can use gestures to convey more complex meanings than words alone Vocabulary size 16 months: produce 55 words 23 months: produce 225 words 30 months: produce 573 words 6 years: produce 6000 words By 6 years, children comprehend approximately 14,000 words Word Growth: General nominals: nouns (dog, ball) Specific nominals: names (Mommy, Daddy, Rover) Action words: verbs (go, up, look) Modifiers: (big, all gone) Others: personal social words (no, want, please), function words (the, is, for) spurt Individual differences: although general nouns dominate the first 50 words there is variability in which words children learn within the first 50. Some children focus on specific names for objects. Other children focus on social words. o Naming insight Underextensions and Overextensions Underextension – using a word in an overly narrow context Using the word ‘dog’ to refer to only one dog ‘Spot’ and no other dogs, or using the word shoes to refer to ‘sneakers’ but not Mom’s sandals. Overextension – using a word in an overly broad context Using the word ‘dog’ to refer to all furry creatures Constraints on word learning Fast mapping and the word spurt The whole object assumption Labels refer to the whole thing, not the thing’s parts The taxonomic assumption Words refer to things of the same kind or general category (not things that merely tend to occur with that object) The mutual exclusivity assumption If a word already exists for an object a new label will refer to an object part Fast Mapping - the ability to hear a novel phonological string once and map it to an object or action -early language: By the age of 2 years, children are acquiring 10 new words per day -Often they hear a novel phonological string once, and learn it = “fast mapping” Morphology Morpheme: the smallest unit of meaning in a language Free and bound morphemes Free morphemes (words) stand alone Bound morphemes cannot (e.g. un-, -s, -ed, -ing) Wug test o Gleason Syntax - Knowing rules about how words may form legal combinations in sentences - We see evidence of syntax as earlier as 18-24 months of age in children’s productions - Two-word stage o Pivot grammars Pragmatics Pragmatic knowledge: understanding the communicative functions of language Discourse knowledge: understanding the mechanics of conversation (e.g. that people take turns when speaking) Sociolinguistic knowledge: knowing how language differs as a function of the social class or status of the conversational partner or the formality of the setting. Pragmatic principles Quantity: be as informative as is required Quality: be truthful, don’t make false statements, only make statements for which you have adequate evidence Relation: be relevant Manner: be clear, brief, unambiguous Take turns: don’t interrupt, don’t monopolize conversation