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Orbital Overlap; Hybrid Orbitals (Sections)How would you

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321696724 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward ISBN: 9780321696724 27

Solution for problem 50E Chapter 9

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

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Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321696724 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

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Problem 50E

Problem 50E

Orbital Overlap; Hybrid Orbitals (Sections)

How would you expect the extent of overlap of the bonding atomic orbitals to vary in the series IF, ICl, IBr, and I2? Explain your answer.

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Bio Lecture Sensory System 4-13-2016 Simple Eye- Light Enters the eye through the cornea, it passes the pupil, and hits the curved clear lens, together the cornea and lens focus incoming light into the retina, the retina has a thin layer of cells that contain photoreceptors and layers of neurons The Retina Where photoreceptor cells are present 1) Photoreceptors- Light sensitive cells (Robs, Cones) which form a layer at the back of the retina 2) Bipolar Cells- Intermediate layer of connecting neurons 3) Ganglion Cells- Form the front or innermost layer of the retina and whose axons project to the brain via optic nerve Photoreceptors are where light hits and it is focused Rods- Sensitive to dim light not color Cones- Less sensitive to faint light, but are stimulated by color Rods dominate the most of the retina, but one small spot in the center of the retina, the fovea has only cones Shape and change in retina is the basis of vision Rods & Cones- are packed with transmembrane proteins that contain the pigment retinal Both have membranous discs containing thousands of opsin molecules (Rhodopsin in Rods) Each Rhodopsin holds one retinal molecule Retinal Changes conformation absorbs light A signal transduction pathway connects light absorption to changes in membrane potential An unstimulated photoreceptor Na+ flows into the cell when light is not being received A stimulated photoreceptor. Activation of rhodopsin leads to a reduction in cGMP. With less cGMP available A cGMp & Na+ channels close and membrane hyperpolarizes Opsins- Although retinal is the light absorbing molecule in all photoreceptor cells, the different opsins cause each to respond to a different range of wavelengths Color vision is possible due to different opsins absorbing different wavelengths of light Chemoreception Gustation (taste) Olfaction (smell) Gustation Each taste bud has 100 taste receptors Olfaction Chemoreceptors in the nose respond to different odorants Thermoreception May be located in the CNS, skin and other surfaces are used Pit Vipers use thermoreception to detect prey Electroreception All animals give off weak electrical impulses by nervous system & Muscle activity Electrogenic Fish can create strong electric fields Bio Lecture Notes 4-15-2016 Animal Movement Muscle Generate movement by exerting force and causing shape changes. Muscle and skeletal systems work together to make movement 2 Types of Movement 1) Entire organism 2) Part of the organism Muscle Contraction Muscle fibers make up vertebrate skeletal and cardiac muscle tissue Within these are myofibrils Sarcomeres- light and dark areas of myofibrils Sarcomeres become shorter as myofibril contracts and longer when it relaxes Sliding Filament Model Muscle contraction depends on how sarcomeres shorten Actin (thin) & Myosin (thick) filaments slide past one another during contraction Myosin Heads bind ATP and actin. Each myosin molecule is made of two subunits with their tails coiled together and their two heads exposed Muscle Contraction Model 4 steps repeat rapidly 1. ATP binds to myosin head which changes shape and releases the head from action 2. ATP is hydrolyzed the neck of myosin straightens and head pivots The head binds to a new actin subunit farther down the thin filament myosin head is cocked into its high energy state 3. When Pi is released the neck bends back to its original position this moves the entire thin filament relative to the thick filament 4. After ADP is released the myosin molecule is ready to bind to another molecule Regulation of Contraction In addition to containing actin, thin filaments have troponin and Tropomyosin proteins These work to block myosin binding sites on actin, this prevents filaments from sliding by each other These proteins are used to regulate muscle activity Neurons Initiate Muscle Contraction Action Potentials trigger the release fo Ca2+ They also trigger the release of Ach Smooth Muscle Used for functioning blood vessels, reproductive system bladder etc.. Parasympathetic: Ach stimulates contraction of smooth muscle in the stomach and intestine Sympathetic: Epinephrine and Norepinephrine inhibit contraction of smooth muscle in the stomach and intestine Cardiac Muscle Highly branched cells are directly connected to end via intercalated discs Parasympathetic: Ach released to heart lowering rate Sympathetic: Epinephrine is released onto heart increasing rate Skeletal Muscle Skeletal Muscle is voluntary and must be stimulated by somatic neurons Skeletal Muscle Fiber Types 1) Slow Fibers: For endurance fatigue slowly 2) Fast Fibers: Bursts of activity 3) Intermediate Fibers: Skeletal Fiber Organization Organized into parallel fibers which maximizes length change Organized into pennate (feather-like) Fibers maximizes force Skeletal Systems Provides 1) Protection 2) Maintenance of Posture 3) Re-extension of shortened muscles 4) Transfer Muscle Forces Bio Lecture Musculoskeletal System 4-13-2016 2 Categories of Muscle Movement Entire organism Parts of organism Bio Lecture Notes 4-11-2016 Sensory Systems Sensory Organs convey information to the brain 3 Process 1) Transduction- Conversion of external stimulus to an internal signal in action potential form 2) Amplification of signal 3) Transmission of signal to the CNS Sensory Systems effectors and CNS are connected Sensory neurons relay info about conditions an outside to animal to CNS, after integrating information many sensory neurons, the CNS send signals to the muscles Sensory Receptors Each type of info is detected by a receptor that makes a synapse with a sensory neuron Sensory receptors transduce sensory input into a change in membrane potential If a sensory stimulus induce large changes in action potential there is a change in firing rate Many type of Receptors 1) Mechanoreceptors- Detect Pressure change 2) Chemoreceptors- Detect Chemical change 3) Photoreceptors- Detect Light change 4) Thermoreceptors- Detect Temperature change 5) Nociceptors- Sense harmful stimuli 6) Electroreceptors- Detect electrical fields 7) Magnereceptors- Detect magnetic fields Sensory Transduction Resting state neurons have negative charge Change in potential allows different types of stimuli to be transduced to a common type of signal interoperated by the brain If a sensory stimulus induce a large change in sensory receptors membrane there is a change Transmitting Information to the Brain Receptor Cells tend to be very specific Each type of sensory neuron sends its signal to a specific part of the brain Mechanereception Pressure sensing systems are used for a variety of changes in environment Hearing, Physical pressure of skin, muscle movement, stretching of blood vessels Hearing- Ability to sense sound, The frequency of the sound is the number of pressure waves that occur in a second 3 Parts to the Ear 1) Outer Ear collects pressure waves and funnels tem into the ear canal where they strike the tympanic membrane 2) Middle Ear- Amplifies sound waves enough to stimulate 3) Inner Ear- Detects sound frequencies, the Fluid inside cochlea, vibrates, stimulating hair cells Cochlea- Detects sound frequencies, divided into three fluid filled chambers separate by membranes, hair cells from rows in the middle chamber the bottom of each hair cell is connected to the basilar membrane, the stereocilia also touch the tectorial membrane Hair Cells in certain place on membrane response to different frequencies Hair Cells Pressure Receptor Cells- Contain outgrowths called stereocillium Some hair cells also have Kinocilium, the tallest of these extends to the fluid chambers Hair Cell Signal Transduction Depolarization of the hair cell causes movement of Ca2+, this excites the postsynaptic cells If hyperpolarization occurs the action potential is inhibited Hair cell propagated signal not the axon The Basilar Membrane varies in stiffness- Different parts of the basilar membrane vibrate in response to different sound frequencies and result in the bending of the hair sterocilia in this way hair cells in particular place of the membrane respond to sounds of a certain frequencies Photoreception A specie’s sensory abilities correlate with the environment it lives in and its mode of life Simple Eye- Structure that has a lense that focuses incoming light onto a layer of receptor cells Vertebrate Eye Sclera- Outermost layer of tough white tissue Cornea- Front of sclera forms transparent sheet of CT which helps focus light on retina Iris- Pigmented round muscle that contracts or expands lets light in Pupil- Hole in center Retina- Organ with receptor cells Bio Lecture Notes Nervous System 4-8-2016 The Synapse: Interface between Neurons Axons and Dendrites are separated by a synaptic cleft The ends of the axons have synaptic vesicles Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that ae sent to cells Synaptic vehicles are where neurotransmitters are stored, Synaptic vesicles cluster near synapses, a cross section of the site where an axon meets the dendrites Neurons meet and transfer information at synapses Action potential is arriving near cleft The channels then open, at presynaptic membrane that takes in information Neurotransmitters are chemical signals that are transduced to an electrical signal, due to a change in membrane potential in postsynaptic cell Postsynaptic Potentials Ligand gated Na+ channels of dendrites are abundant near the synapses When a neurotransmitter bind the channels let Na+ into the cell which results in depolarization Can be excited bring membrane potential closer to threshold or inhibited make membrane more negative Inhibited can be because the threshold was not met or they were not needed Neurons integrate information from many synapses Dendrites receive signals from hundreds/thousands of other neurons When the action potential arrives close together in time the postsynaptic potentials sum Hundreds of excitatory and inhibitory determine frequency The Human Nervous System The CNS is made of brain and spinal cord neurons, it primarily integrates information PNS is made of all other neurons Somatic Nervous System controls voluntary movements Automatic Nervous System controls internal processes Frontal Lobe has to do with personality

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Chapter 9, Problem 50E is Solved
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Textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science
Edition: 12
Author: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward
ISBN: 9780321696724

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Orbital Overlap; Hybrid Orbitals (Sections)How would you