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Urea ( CH4N2O ) is a common fertilizer that is synthesized

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780321809247 | Authors: Nivaldo J. Tro ISBN: 9780321809247 1

Solution for problem 51E Chapter 4

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition

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Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780321809247 | Authors: Nivaldo J. Tro

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition

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Problem 51E

Urea ( CH4N2O ) is a common fertilizer that is synthesized by the reaction of ammonia ( NH3 ) with carbon dioxide:

In an industrial synthesis of urea, a chemist combines 136.4 kg of ammonia with 211.4 kg of carbon dioxide and obtains 168.4 kg of urea. Determine the limiting reactant, theoretical yield of urea, and percent yield for the reaction.

Step-by-Step Solution:
Step 1 of 3

Solution: Here, we are going to identify the elements which are oxidized and reduced in the given set of equation. Step1: Oxidation refers to loss of electrons by an atom, molecule or ion whereas reduction means gain of electrons by an atom, molecule or ion. Oxidation leads to increase in oxidation state whereas reduction leads to decrease in oxidation state of the atom, molecule or ion. The reactant which loses electron is said to be oxidized and the reactant which gains electron is said to be reduced. Step2: a) The given reaction is: N + 32 -----2 2NH 3 Here, the oxidation and reduction takes place in the following manner: As we have seen, the oxidation number of nitrogen changes from 0 to -3(gain of electrons) i.e., its oxidation number decreases. Also, the oxidation number of hydrogen increases from 0 to +1(loss of electrons). Hence, nitrogen is reduced and hydrogen is oxidized. b) The given reaction is 3Fe(NO ) + 2Al ---------> 3Fe + 2Al(NO ) 3 2 3 3 Here, the oxidation and reduction takes place in the following manner: As we have seen, the oxidation number of iron changes from +2 to 0(gain of electrons) i.e., its oxidation number decreases. Also, the oxidation number of aluminium increases from 0 to +3(loss of electrons). Hence, iron is reduced and aluminium is oxidized. c) The given reaction is: Cl + 2NaI --2----> I + 2NaCl 2 Here, the oxidation and reduction takes place in the following manner: As we have seen, the oxidation number of chlorine changes from 0 to -1(gain of electrons) i.e., its oxidation number decreases. Also, the oxidation number of iodine increases from -1 to 0(loss of electrons). Hence, chlorine is reduced and iodine is oxidized. d) The given reaction is: PbS + 4H O --------> PbSO + 4H O 2 2 4 2 Here, the oxidation and reduction takes place in the following manner: As we have seen, the oxidation number of oxygen changes from -1 to -2(gain of electrons) i.e., its oxidation number decreases. Also, the oxidation number of sulfur increases from -2 to +6(loss of electrons). Hence, oxygen is reduced and sulfur is oxidized. ------------

Step 2 of 3

Chapter 4, Problem 51E is Solved
Step 3 of 3

Textbook: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach
Edition: 3
Author: Nivaldo J. Tro
ISBN: 9780321809247

This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, edition: 3. Since the solution to 51E from 4 chapter was answered, more than 344 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. This full solution covers the following key subjects: reactions, blockquote, oxidation, oxidized, element. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 82 chapters, and 9454 solutions. The answer to “Urea ( CH4N2O ) is a common fertilizer that is synthesized by the reaction of ammonia ( NH3 ) with carbon dioxide: In an industrial synthesis of urea, a chemist combines 136.4 kg of ammonia with 211.4 kg of carbon dioxide and obtains 168.4 kg of urea. Determine the limiting reactant, theoretical yield of urea, and percent yield for the reaction.” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 61 words. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 51E from chapter: 4 was answered by , our top Chemistry solution expert on 02/22/17, 04:35PM. Chemistry: A Molecular Approach was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321809247.

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Urea ( CH4N2O ) is a common fertilizer that is synthesized