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# Water softeners often replace calcium ions in hard water ISBN: 9780321910295 34

## Solution for problem 134P Chapter 13

Introductory Chemistry | 5th Edition

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Problem 134P

Water softeners often replace calcium ions in hard water with sodium ions. Since sodium compounds are soluble, the presence of sodium ions in water does not result in the white, scaly residues caused by calcium ions. However, calcium is more beneficial to human health than sodium. Calcium is a necessary part of the human diet, while high levels of sodium intake are linked to increases in blood pressure. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends that adults ingest less than 2.4 g of sodium per day. How many liters of softened water, containing a sodium concentration of 0.050% sodium by mass, have to be consumed to exceed the FDA recommendation? (Assume a density of 1.0 g/mL for water.)

Step-by-Step Solution:

Solution 134P :

Step 1:

Given :

Amount of Sodium ingested by adults per day = 2.4 g

Concentration of sodium in softened water = 0.050 %

Volume of softened water containing sodium to be consumed = ?

Here, we are given the concentration of sodium in percentage -0.050% , let’s use the percentage to convert the sodium into grams :

0.050 % could be thought as 0.050 g of Na in 100 g of water(H2O)

Now , let’s calculate the amount of water that has 2.4g of sodium :

= 2.4 g Na  = 4800 grams of H2O

Step 2 of 2

##### ISBN: 9780321910295

Since the solution to 134P from 13 chapter was answered, more than 1019 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 134P from chapter: 13 was answered by , our top Chemistry solution expert on 05/06/17, 06:45PM. This full solution covers the following key subjects: sodium, Water, Calcium, ions, Human. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 19 chapters, and 2045 solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Introductory Chemistry, edition: 5. Introductory Chemistry was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321910295. The answer to “Water softeners often replace calcium ions in hard water with sodium ions. Since sodium compounds are soluble, the presence of sodium ions in water does not result in the white, scaly residues caused by calcium ions. However, calcium is more beneficial to human health than sodium. Calcium is a necessary part of the human diet, while high levels of sodium intake are linked to increases in blood pressure. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends that adults ingest less than 2.4 g of sodium per day. How many liters of softened water, containing a sodium concentration of 0.050% sodium by mass, have to be consumed to exceed the FDA recommendation? (Assume a density of 1.0 g/mL for water.)” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 118 words.

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