Two students determine the percentage of lead in a sample as a laboratory exercise. The true percentage is 22.52%. The students' results for three determinations are as follows:
(2) 22.64, 22.58, 22.62
(a) Calculate the average percentage for each set of data and state which set is the more accurate based on the average.
(b) Precision can be judged by examining the average of the deviations from the average value for that data set. (Calculate the average value for each data set; then calculate the average value of the absolute deviations of each measurement from the average.) Which set is more precise?
Exam 4 Readings The Problem When Sexism Just Sounds So Darn Friendly 2 diff. types of sexism: hostile sexism (negative attitudes toward women), and benevolent sexism (interrelated attitudes toward women that are sexist but positive feeling in tone) Benevolent sexism= positive orientation of protection, idealization, and affection that propels women’s subordinate status to men Yvonne Brill= rocket scientist who invented a propulsion system to keep communications satellites from slipping out of their orbits whose obituary pegged her accomplishments as an after note to her motherly duties Hostile and benevolent sexism tend to correlate highly across nations; those who endorsed benevolent sexism also held hostile attitudes toward women Benevolent sexism was a significant predictor of nationwide gender inequality: places were benevolent sexism was endorsed men lived longer, had higher literacy rates, made more money, and were more involved in politics and economics In experiments women were exposed to statements of hostile sexism and benevolent, and were found to be less willing to take anti-sexist action when reading benevolent System justification= process by which people justify the status quo & believe that disadvantaged groups no longer face problems Detours on the Road to Equality Female Jobs: secretaries/ administrative assistants= 99% female, child care workers= 98% female, registered nurses= 93% female; Male jobs: carpenters/plumbers/electricians= 3% female, mechanics and repairers= 5% female Gender segregation of work is the concentration of men and women in diff. jobs Women make up half of law, medicine, management students, but few have reached high positions in those fields as men have; women’s jobs tend to be paid less Women in emotionally demanding jobs suffer from burnout, while women in male-dominated fields often feel isolated Women in traditionally female occupations often lack the co-worker support they need to succeed, they work hours that lets their husband be the breadwinner, and their family/friends often don’t support a new/unconventional occupation Hiring discrimination: the more expensive the restaurant, the fewer the women servers. In high-priced restaurants women= 35% less likely than men to get an interview and 40% less likely to get a job offer Comparable worth= the idea of equalizing pay for the same work and for work of comparable value Index of dissimilarity= measures the proportion of women who would have to change fields in order to be represented across types of occupations in the same way men are Surge in women’s education: 1) low wages made in unskilled women’s jobs don’t offer living wage, 2)by seeking specific credentials women gain some protection against hiring discrimination, 3) the educational credentials women get are segregated, which limits the financial returns they can expect Proposals to reduce the segregation: enforcement of anti- discrimination laws, training programs targeting highly gendered fields, broad consideration of the value of women’s work, restructure working to make jobs parent-friendly Mass Shootings and masculinity Privileged groups like young white men losing power= a sense of aggrieved entitlement (associated with women and racial minorities) “Suicide by mass murder”= mass shooter (men) usually end their spree by suicide gun control laws are a huge part of the problem w/ mass shootings; of at least 69 mass shootings in the last 3 decades, 68 of were committed by males Gun advocates use Switzerland and Israel’s low homicide rate and large access to firearms to argue that more guns do not lead to more violence Gun laws are stricter and guns have other use (as opposed to handguns) in foreign countries Men are more likely to commit mass shootings because 1) “social identity threat”, “masculine overcompensation thesis”, 2)”angry white men” where perceived loss of privilege and superiority results in backlash Lean in Dad In the U.S. women are majority of college grads and advanced-degree holders, but any are underemployed due to lack of paid maternity leave and work flexibility European Union mandated that all member countries allow men and women to request flexible hours in addition to paid leave; other countries have high-quality childcare and enables working-age women to be active in the work force 15-20% of productivity growth in U.S. over last 5 decades has come from groups like women into occupations like doctors and lawyers potential paternity leave to challenge gender roles Families facing untenable solutions o 7/10 women are working mothers and work in low paying, demanding jobs o “second shift”= women’s juggling of work and family demands o service, retail, care work jobs pay $8-$12/ hour and usually come with irregular schedules, unpredictable hours, low flexibility o “cliff effect”=the smallest wage increase can result in los of housing, healthcare, food stamps from the welfare system o 3 themes that stand out in low-income families: 1) inflexible/unpredictable work schedules impacts mother’s ability for family care, 2) stigma low-income mothers face when they don’t meet middle class norms of family first, 3)how the norms of major social institutions demand mothers/children to make untenable choices o many working mothers forced to leave kids in self-care- 2 fears: harm could come to the children and CPS would find out o middle class working moms- operating in world of hurried childhood where there’s emphasis on academic and social wins; low-income moms- operating in world of adultified childhood where children help in the heavy lifting of family survival Unmarried with children in 1950 only 1/20 kids was born to an unmarried mother, but now its 1/3 the book Promises I can Keep: Why Poor Women Put Motherhood Before Marriage the lives of 162 low-income single mothers from Camden were discussed promoting marriage among the poor has become the new war on poverty; the correlation between marital status and child poverty is strong more than 7/10 women w/ children outside of marriage will wed someone; but the poor have little motivation to time their births most young mothers believe that their children “saved” them because it gave their life purpose; children provide social-psychological resources for the poor, marriage is seen as a goal for someone who can support a “white picket fence” lifestyle mistrust is often spawned by chronic violence and infidelity, drug and alcohol abuse, criminal activity, and the threat of imprisonment. I the convictions that marriage is forever makes poor mothers think divorce is worse than having a baby outside of marriage Fighting Back Maryland has had success in reducing their domestic violence homicide rate by 40% by training officers to use specific screening questions (lethality screen) Grassroots movement created protection in the forms of shelters, gun restrictions for abusers, protection orders, and the U.S. first federal anti-domestic violence legislation Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) Overall homicide rates have decreased but victims of domestic violence have been killed at a constant rate for 15 years Between 40-50% of female homicide victims are killed by their husbands, exes, boyfriends; only about half of these cases had police altered to their previous cases Era of the “Burning Bed”= nearly as many men (victim AND abuser) died from domestic violence as women “Danger assessment” for advocates who deal with abused women to determine “high-risk” cases; history of hitting partner, choking partner, unemployed men had a higher risk of killing their women to some people VAWA has a broad definition of violence Bonding from Behind Bars Because of harsh drug laws and mandatory minimum sentencing, our prison population has almost quadruples over the past 30 years U.S. houses more of its citizens in jail than the top 35 European countries combined; of the estimated 2.3 million inmates in jail, more than ½ are parents of minors Blacks kids in poverty are 7 ½ times more likely than white kids to experience incarceration of a parent Children of jailed parents are at high risk of serious behavioral problems, doing bad in school or dropping out, substance misuse, trouble with the law 2/3 of prisoners are nonviolent offenders Environmental Inequalities Impact POC, working class, immigrants, and indigenous communities; many people share their neighborhoods with hazardous waste, toxic incinerators, and health-threatening chemical contamination Environmental racism= uneven exposure to environmental risks and hazards along with systematic exclusion from environmental decision- making processes the causes are social and political rather than environmental; gender, age, class, indigeneity, immigration status/ citizenship play roles too study on environmental inequality in 1983 examined racial make-up of communities near 4 major hazardous landfills: ¾were mostly Black Environmental justice= all ppl and communities deserve equal protection by environmental health laws and regulations 2 examples in Chicago: “the Toxic Doughnut” results in blacks reporting asthma, COPD, skin rashes, cancer from chemicals in the air & Pilsen and Little Village are mostly Latino and had premature deaths, heart attacks, asthma attacks Executive Order 12898= develop & implement plans against env. inequalities Clean Power Coalition formed to make Chicago a coal-free city Environmental inequalities are explained by economics and discrimination o Economic: there’s a need to generate goods, which requires lots of energy and expansion (creation of wealth AND negative byproducts) those with little power, voice, and money are affected by the byproducts o Discrimination: many whites see blacks as a form of pollution, which makes it morally easier to pollute already “polluted” communities The Extraordinary Science of Addictive Junk Food Topic at the conference with top food companies: the emerging obesity epidemic and how to deal with it Salt, sugar, Fat= 3 main ingredients that make us crave 1/3 of American adults were considered obese (1/5 of the adults are obese) 24million have diabetes and 79 million have pre-diabetes Mudd proposed that the food industry use scientific expertise to understand what causes Americans to overeat “line extension”= spinoffs of a certain product(i.e. Dr. Pepper’s variables of cherry, vanilla, and Dr. Pepper flavoring) Dr. Moskowitz- product optimization= food engineers alter variables in a product to find the most perfect version to appeal to customers (“bliss point) Optimization of Prego sauce- Americans tested with plain sauce, spicy sauce, chunky sauce resulted in large production of chunky sauce; LOTS OF SUGAR “mouth feel”= how a product interacts with the mouth Lunchables born to benefit working moms who had little time to make healthy lunches; full of salt, sugar, and fat company responses to critiques say that kids don’t eat Lunchables everyday Coke extended marketing to poor and vulnerable areas of U.S.--> big consumers called “heavy users” o “How can we drive more ounces into more bodies more often” o marketing in poor Brazilian favelas by making smaller, more affordable bottles for 20 cents Dunn used to work for Coca Cola but got fired for speaking up against unhealthy ingredients; began working for a carrot company “Eat Em Like Junk Food”